summarylogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/uksm-5.10.patch
blob: eacd7b693e986a7f5f0d569e0d6bc211b2e3ff21 (plain)
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diff --git a/Documentation/vm/uksm.txt b/Documentation/vm/uksm.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..be19a3127001
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/uksm.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
+The Ultra Kernel Samepage Merging feature
+----------------------------------------------
+/*
+ * Ultra KSM. Copyright (C) 2011-2012 Nai Xia
+ *
+ * This is an improvement upon KSM. Some basic data structures and routines
+ * are borrowed from ksm.c .
+ *
+ * Its new features:
+ * 1. Full system scan:
+ *      It automatically scans all user processes' anonymous VMAs. Kernel-user
+ *      interaction to submit a memory area to KSM is no longer needed.
+ *
+ * 2. Rich area detection:
+ *      It automatically detects rich areas containing abundant duplicated
+ *      pages based. Rich areas are given a full scan speed. Poor areas are
+ *      sampled at a reasonable speed with very low CPU consumption.
+ *
+ * 3. Ultra Per-page scan speed improvement:
+ *      A new hash algorithm is proposed. As a result, on a machine with
+ *      Core(TM)2 Quad Q9300 CPU in 32-bit mode and 800MHZ DDR2 main memory, it
+ *      can scan memory areas that does not contain duplicated pages at speed of
+ *      627MB/sec ~ 2445MB/sec and can merge duplicated areas at speed of
+ *      477MB/sec ~ 923MB/sec.
+ *
+ * 4. Thrashing area avoidance:
+ *      Thrashing area(an VMA that has frequent Ksm page break-out) can be
+ *      filtered out. My benchmark shows it's more efficient than KSM's per-page
+ *      hash value based volatile page detection.
+ *
+ *
+ * 5. Misc changes upon KSM:
+ *      * It has a fully x86-opitmized memcmp dedicated for 4-byte-aligned page
+ *        comparison. It's much faster than default C version on x86.
+ *      * rmap_item now has an struct *page member to loosely cache a
+ *        address-->page mapping, which reduces too much time-costly
+ *        follow_page().
+ *      * The VMA creation/exit procedures are hooked to let the Ultra KSM know.
+ *      * try_to_merge_two_pages() now can revert a pte if it fails. No break_
+ *        ksm is needed for this case.
+ *
+ * 6. Full Zero Page consideration(contributed by Figo Zhang)
+ *    Now uksmd consider full zero pages as special pages and merge them to an
+ *    special unswappable uksm zero page.
+ */
+
+ChangeLog:
+
+2012-05-05 The creation of this Doc
+2012-05-08 UKSM 0.1.1.1 libc crash bug fix, api clean up, doc clean up.
+2012-05-28 UKSM 0.1.1.2 bug fix release
+2012-06-26 UKSM 0.1.2-beta1 first beta release for 0.1.2
+2012-07-2  UKSM 0.1.2-beta2
+2012-07-10 UKSM 0.1.2-beta3
+2012-07-26 UKSM 0.1.2 Fine grained speed control, more scan optimization.
+2012-10-13 UKSM 0.1.2.1 Bug fixes.
+2012-12-31 UKSM 0.1.2.2 Minor bug fixes.
+2014-07-02 UKSM 0.1.2.3 Fix a " __this_cpu_read() in preemptible bug".
+2015-04-22 UKSM 0.1.2.4 Fix a race condition that can sometimes trigger anonying warnings.
+2016-09-10 UKSM 0.1.2.5 Fix a bug in dedup ratio calculation.
+2017-02-26 UKSM 0.1.2.6 Fix a bug in hugetlbpage handling and a race bug with page migration.
diff --git a/fs/exec.c b/fs/exec.c
index 547a2390baf5..fc64a20db6bd 100644
--- a/fs/exec.c
+++ b/fs/exec.c
@@ -64,6 +64,7 @@
 #include <linux/compat.h>
 #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
 #include <linux/io_uring.h>
+#include <linux/ksm.h>
 
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
diff --git a/fs/proc/meminfo.c b/fs/proc/meminfo.c
index 887a5532e449..581a6762868e 100644
--- a/fs/proc/meminfo.c
+++ b/fs/proc/meminfo.c
@@ -108,7 +108,10 @@ static int meminfo_proc_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
 #endif
 	show_val_kb(m, "PageTables:     ",
 		    global_zone_page_state(NR_PAGETABLE));
-
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+	show_val_kb(m, "KsmZeroPages:     ",
+		    global_zone_page_state(NR_UKSM_ZERO_PAGES));
+#endif
 	show_val_kb(m, "NFS_Unstable:   ", 0);
 	show_val_kb(m, "Bounce:         ",
 		    global_zone_page_state(NR_BOUNCE));
diff --git a/include/linux/ksm.h b/include/linux/ksm.h
index 161e8164abcf..f0dbdf3c986a 100644
--- a/include/linux/ksm.h
+++ b/include/linux/ksm.h
@@ -21,20 +21,16 @@ struct mem_cgroup;
 #ifdef CONFIG_KSM
 int ksm_madvise(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
 		unsigned long end, int advice, unsigned long *vm_flags);
-int __ksm_enter(struct mm_struct *mm);
-void __ksm_exit(struct mm_struct *mm);
 
-static inline int ksm_fork(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
+static inline struct stable_node *page_stable_node(struct page *page)
 {
-	if (test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &oldmm->flags))
-		return __ksm_enter(mm);
-	return 0;
+	return PageKsm(page) ? page_rmapping(page) : NULL;
 }
 
-static inline void ksm_exit(struct mm_struct *mm)
+static inline void set_page_stable_node(struct page *page,
+					struct stable_node *stable_node)
 {
-	if (test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &mm->flags))
-		__ksm_exit(mm);
+	page->mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)stable_node | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -54,6 +50,33 @@ struct page *ksm_might_need_to_copy(struct page *page,
 void rmap_walk_ksm(struct page *page, struct rmap_walk_control *rwc);
 void ksm_migrate_page(struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage);
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_KSM_LEGACY
+int __ksm_enter(struct mm_struct *mm);
+void __ksm_exit(struct mm_struct *mm);
+static inline int ksm_fork(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
+{
+	if (test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &oldmm->flags))
+		return __ksm_enter(mm);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void ksm_exit(struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+	if (test_bit(MMF_VM_MERGEABLE, &mm->flags))
+		__ksm_exit(mm);
+}
+
+#elif defined(CONFIG_UKSM)
+static inline int ksm_fork(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void ksm_exit(struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+}
+#endif /* !CONFIG_UKSM */
+
 #else  /* !CONFIG_KSM */
 
 static inline int ksm_fork(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
@@ -89,4 +112,6 @@ static inline void ksm_migrate_page(struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage)
 #endif /* CONFIG_MMU */
 #endif /* !CONFIG_KSM */
 
+#include <linux/uksm.h>
+
 #endif /* __LINUX_KSM_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
index 5a9238f6caad..5dd1ccf5cb69 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
@@ -371,6 +371,9 @@ struct vm_area_struct {
 	struct mempolicy *vm_policy;	/* NUMA policy for the VMA */
 #endif
 	struct vm_userfaultfd_ctx vm_userfaultfd_ctx;
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+	struct vma_slot *uksm_vma_slot;
+#endif
 } __randomize_layout;
 
 struct core_thread {
diff --git a/include/linux/mmzone.h b/include/linux/mmzone.h
index fb3bf696c05e..e4477c3a9a4b 100644
--- a/include/linux/mmzone.h
+++ b/include/linux/mmzone.h
@@ -159,6 +159,9 @@ enum zone_stat_item {
 	NR_ZSPAGES,		/* allocated in zsmalloc */
 #endif
 	NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES,
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+	NR_UKSM_ZERO_PAGES,
+#endif
 	NR_VM_ZONE_STAT_ITEMS };
 
 enum node_stat_item {
diff --git a/include/linux/pgtable.h b/include/linux/pgtable.h
index e237004d498d..092cdfb7090b 100644
--- a/include/linux/pgtable.h
+++ b/include/linux/pgtable.h
@@ -1060,12 +1060,25 @@ extern void untrack_pfn(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long pfn,
 extern void untrack_pfn_moved(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+static inline int is_uksm_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
+{
+	extern unsigned long uksm_zero_pfn;
+	return pfn == uksm_zero_pfn;
+}
+#else
+static inline int is_uksm_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
 #ifdef __HAVE_COLOR_ZERO_PAGE
 static inline int is_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
 {
 	extern unsigned long zero_pfn;
 	unsigned long offset_from_zero_pfn = pfn - zero_pfn;
-	return offset_from_zero_pfn <= (zero_page_mask >> PAGE_SHIFT);
+	return offset_from_zero_pfn <= (zero_page_mask >> PAGE_SHIFT) || is_uksm_zero_pfn(pfn);
 }
 
 #define my_zero_pfn(addr)	page_to_pfn(ZERO_PAGE(addr))
@@ -1074,7 +1087,7 @@ static inline int is_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
 static inline int is_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
 {
 	extern unsigned long zero_pfn;
-	return pfn == zero_pfn;
+	return (pfn == zero_pfn) || (is_uksm_zero_pfn(pfn));
 }
 
 static inline unsigned long my_zero_pfn(unsigned long addr)
diff --git a/include/linux/sradix-tree.h b/include/linux/sradix-tree.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d71edba6b63f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/sradix-tree.h
@@ -0,0 +1,77 @@
+#ifndef _LINUX_SRADIX_TREE_H
+#define _LINUX_SRADIX_TREE_H
+
+
+#define INIT_SRADIX_TREE(root, mask)					\
+do {									\
+	(root)->height = 0;						\
+	(root)->gfp_mask = (mask);					\
+	(root)->rnode = NULL;						\
+} while (0)
+
+#define ULONG_BITS	(sizeof(unsigned long) * 8)
+#define SRADIX_TREE_INDEX_BITS  (8 /* CHAR_BIT */ * sizeof(unsigned long))
+//#define SRADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT	6
+//#define SRADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE	(1UL << SRADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT)
+//#define SRADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK	(SRADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE-1)
+
+struct sradix_tree_node {
+	unsigned int	height;		/* Height from the bottom */
+	unsigned int	count;
+	unsigned int	fulls;		/* Number of full sublevel trees */
+	struct sradix_tree_node *parent;
+	void *stores[0];
+};
+
+/* A simple radix tree implementation */
+struct sradix_tree_root {
+	unsigned int            height;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *rnode;
+
+	/* Where found to have available empty stores in its sublevels */
+	struct sradix_tree_node *enter_node;
+	unsigned int shift;
+	unsigned int stores_size;
+	unsigned int mask;
+	unsigned long min;	/* The first hole index */
+	unsigned long num;
+	//unsigned long *height_to_maxindex;
+
+	/* How the node is allocated and freed. */
+	struct sradix_tree_node *(*alloc)(void);
+	void (*free)(struct sradix_tree_node *node);
+
+	/* When a new node is added and removed */
+	void (*extend)(struct sradix_tree_node *parent, struct sradix_tree_node *child);
+	void (*assign)(struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned int index, void *item);
+	void (*rm)(struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned int offset);
+};
+
+struct sradix_tree_path {
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node;
+	int offset;
+};
+
+static inline
+void init_sradix_tree_root(struct sradix_tree_root *root, unsigned long shift)
+{
+	root->height = 0;
+	root->rnode = NULL;
+	root->shift = shift;
+	root->stores_size = 1UL << shift;
+	root->mask = root->stores_size - 1;
+}
+
+
+extern void *sradix_tree_next(struct sradix_tree_root *root,
+		       struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned long index,
+		       int (*iter)(void *, unsigned long));
+
+extern int sradix_tree_enter(struct sradix_tree_root *root, void **item, int num);
+
+extern void sradix_tree_delete_from_leaf(struct sradix_tree_root *root,
+			struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned long index);
+
+extern void *sradix_tree_lookup(struct sradix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index);
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_SRADIX_TREE_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/uksm.h b/include/linux/uksm.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..bb8651f534f2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/uksm.h
@@ -0,0 +1,149 @@
+#ifndef __LINUX_UKSM_H
+#define __LINUX_UKSM_H
+/*
+ * Memory merging support.
+ *
+ * This code enables dynamic sharing of identical pages found in different
+ * memory areas, even if they are not shared by fork().
+ */
+
+/* if !CONFIG_UKSM this file should not be compiled at all. */
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+
+#include <linux/bitops.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+#include <linux/rmap.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+
+extern unsigned long zero_pfn __read_mostly;
+extern unsigned long uksm_zero_pfn __read_mostly;
+extern struct page *empty_uksm_zero_page;
+
+/* must be done before linked to mm */
+extern void uksm_vma_add_new(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
+extern void uksm_remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
+
+#define UKSM_SLOT_NEED_SORT	(1 << 0)
+#define UKSM_SLOT_NEED_RERAND	(1 << 1)
+#define UKSM_SLOT_SCANNED	(1 << 2) /* It's scanned in this round */
+#define UKSM_SLOT_FUL_SCANNED	(1 << 3)
+#define UKSM_SLOT_IN_UKSM	(1 << 4)
+
+struct vma_slot {
+	struct sradix_tree_node *snode;
+	unsigned long sindex;
+
+	struct list_head slot_list;
+	unsigned long fully_scanned_round;
+	unsigned long dedup_num;
+	unsigned long pages_scanned;
+	unsigned long this_sampled;
+	unsigned long last_scanned;
+	unsigned long pages_to_scan;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	struct page **rmap_list_pool;
+	unsigned int *pool_counts;
+	unsigned long pool_size;
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
+	struct mm_struct *mm;
+	unsigned long ctime_j;
+	unsigned long pages;
+	unsigned long flags;
+	unsigned long pages_cowed; /* pages cowed this round */
+	unsigned long pages_merged; /* pages merged this round */
+	unsigned long pages_bemerged;
+
+	/* when it has page merged in this eval round */
+	struct list_head dedup_list;
+};
+
+static inline void uksm_unmap_zero_page(pte_t pte)
+{
+	if (pte_pfn(pte) == uksm_zero_pfn)
+		__dec_zone_page_state(empty_uksm_zero_page, NR_UKSM_ZERO_PAGES);
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_map_zero_page(pte_t pte)
+{
+	if (pte_pfn(pte) == uksm_zero_pfn)
+		__inc_zone_page_state(empty_uksm_zero_page, NR_UKSM_ZERO_PAGES);
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_cow_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page)
+{
+	if (vma->uksm_vma_slot && PageKsm(page))
+		vma->uksm_vma_slot->pages_cowed++;
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_cow_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pte_t pte)
+{
+	if (vma->uksm_vma_slot && pte_pfn(pte) == uksm_zero_pfn)
+		vma->uksm_vma_slot->pages_cowed++;
+}
+
+static inline int uksm_flags_can_scan(unsigned long vm_flags)
+{
+#ifdef VM_SAO
+		if (vm_flags & VM_SAO)
+			return 0;
+#endif
+
+	return !(vm_flags & (VM_PFNMAP | VM_IO  | VM_DONTEXPAND |
+			     VM_HUGETLB | VM_MIXEDMAP | VM_SHARED
+			     | VM_MAYSHARE | VM_GROWSUP | VM_GROWSDOWN));
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_vm_flags_mod(unsigned long *vm_flags_p)
+{
+	if (uksm_flags_can_scan(*vm_flags_p))
+		*vm_flags_p |= VM_MERGEABLE;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Just a wrapper for BUG_ON for where ksm_zeropage must not be. TODO: it will
+ * be removed when uksm zero page patch is stable enough.
+ */
+static inline void uksm_bugon_zeropage(pte_t pte)
+{
+	BUG_ON(pte_pfn(pte) == uksm_zero_pfn);
+}
+#else
+static inline void uksm_vma_add_new(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_unmap_zero_page(pte_t pte)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_map_zero_page(pte_t pte)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_cow_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_cow_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma, pte_t pte)
+{
+}
+
+static inline int uksm_flags_can_scan(unsigned long vm_flags)
+{
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_vm_flags_mod(unsigned long *vm_flags_p)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void uksm_bugon_zeropage(pte_t pte)
+{
+}
+#endif /* !CONFIG_UKSM */
+#endif /* __LINUX_UKSM_H */
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index 6d266388d380..bb52f8731dd6 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -587,7 +587,7 @@ static __latent_entropy int dup_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm,
 		__vma_link_rb(mm, tmp, rb_link, rb_parent);
 		rb_link = &tmp->vm_rb.rb_right;
 		rb_parent = &tmp->vm_rb;
-
+		uksm_vma_add_new(tmp);
 		mm->map_count++;
 		if (!(tmp->vm_flags & VM_WIPEONFORK))
 			retval = copy_page_range(tmp, mpnt);
diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
index d415fc7067c5..e4045ebec8cd 100644
--- a/lib/Makefile
+++ b/lib/Makefile
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ endif
 KCSAN_SANITIZE_random32.o := n
 
 lib-y := ctype.o string.o vsprintf.o cmdline.o \
-	 rbtree.o radix-tree.o timerqueue.o xarray.o \
+	 rbtree.o radix-tree.o sradix-tree.o timerqueue.o xarray.o \
 	 idr.o extable.o sha1.o irq_regs.o argv_split.o \
 	 flex_proportions.o ratelimit.o show_mem.o \
 	 is_single_threaded.o plist.o decompress.o kobject_uevent.o \
diff --git a/lib/sradix-tree.c b/lib/sradix-tree.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ab21e6309b93
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/sradix-tree.c
@@ -0,0 +1,476 @@
+#include <linux/errno.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/mman.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/gcd.h>
+#include <linux/sradix-tree.h>
+
+static inline int sradix_node_full(struct sradix_tree_root *root, struct sradix_tree_node *node)
+{
+	return node->fulls == root->stores_size ||
+		(node->height == 1 && node->count == root->stores_size);
+}
+
+/*
+ *	Extend a sradix tree so it can store key @index.
+ */
+static int sradix_tree_extend(struct sradix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
+{
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node;
+	unsigned int height;
+
+	if (unlikely(root->rnode == NULL)) {
+		if (!(node = root->alloc()))
+			return -ENOMEM;
+
+		node->height = 1;
+		root->rnode = node;
+		root->height = 1;
+	}
+
+	/* Figure out what the height should be.  */
+	height = root->height;
+	index >>= root->shift * height;
+
+	while (index) {
+		index >>= root->shift;
+		height++;
+	}
+
+	while (height > root->height) {
+		unsigned int newheight;
+
+		if (!(node = root->alloc()))
+			return -ENOMEM;
+
+		/* Increase the height.  */
+		node->stores[0] = root->rnode;
+		root->rnode->parent = node;
+		if (root->extend)
+			root->extend(node, root->rnode);
+
+		newheight = root->height + 1;
+		node->height = newheight;
+		node->count = 1;
+		if (sradix_node_full(root, root->rnode))
+			node->fulls = 1;
+
+		root->rnode = node;
+		root->height = newheight;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Search the next item from the current node, that is not NULL
+ * and can satify root->iter().
+ */
+void *sradix_tree_next(struct sradix_tree_root *root,
+		       struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned long index,
+		       int (*iter)(void *item, unsigned long height))
+{
+	unsigned long offset;
+	void *item;
+
+	if (unlikely(node == NULL)) {
+		node = root->rnode;
+		for (offset = 0; offset < root->stores_size; offset++) {
+			item = node->stores[offset];
+			if (item && (!iter || iter(item, node->height)))
+				break;
+		}
+
+		if (unlikely(offset >= root->stores_size))
+			return NULL;
+
+		if (node->height == 1)
+			return item;
+		else
+			goto go_down;
+	}
+
+	while (node) {
+		offset = (index & root->mask) + 1;
+		for (; offset < root->stores_size; offset++) {
+			item = node->stores[offset];
+			if (item && (!iter || iter(item, node->height)))
+				break;
+		}
+
+		if (offset < root->stores_size)
+			break;
+
+		node = node->parent;
+		index >>= root->shift;
+	}
+
+	if (!node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	while (node->height > 1) {
+go_down:
+		node = item;
+		for (offset = 0; offset < root->stores_size; offset++) {
+			item = node->stores[offset];
+			if (item && (!iter || iter(item, node->height)))
+				break;
+		}
+
+		if (unlikely(offset >= root->stores_size))
+			return NULL;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(offset > root->stores_size);
+
+	return item;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Blindly insert the item to the tree. Typically, we reuse the
+ * first empty store item.
+ */
+int sradix_tree_enter(struct sradix_tree_root *root, void **item, int num)
+{
+	unsigned long index;
+	unsigned int height;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node, *tmp = NULL;
+	int offset, offset_saved;
+	void **store = NULL;
+	int error, i, j, shift;
+
+go_on:
+	index = root->min;
+
+	if (root->enter_node && !sradix_node_full(root, root->enter_node)) {
+		node = root->enter_node;
+		BUG_ON((index >> (root->shift * root->height)));
+	} else {
+		node = root->rnode;
+		if (node == NULL || (index >> (root->shift * root->height))
+		    || sradix_node_full(root, node)) {
+			error = sradix_tree_extend(root, index);
+			if (error)
+				return error;
+
+			node = root->rnode;
+		}
+	}
+
+
+	height = node->height;
+	shift = (height - 1) * root->shift;
+	offset = (index >> shift) & root->mask;
+	while (shift > 0) {
+		offset_saved = offset;
+		for (; offset < root->stores_size; offset++) {
+			store = &node->stores[offset];
+			tmp = *store;
+
+			if (!tmp || !sradix_node_full(root, tmp))
+				break;
+		}
+		BUG_ON(offset >= root->stores_size);
+
+		if (offset != offset_saved) {
+			index += (offset - offset_saved) << shift;
+			index &= ~((1UL << shift) - 1);
+		}
+
+		if (!tmp) {
+			if (!(tmp = root->alloc()))
+				return -ENOMEM;
+
+			tmp->height = shift / root->shift;
+			*store = tmp;
+			tmp->parent = node;
+			node->count++;
+//			if (root->extend)
+//				root->extend(node, tmp);
+		}
+
+		node = tmp;
+		shift -= root->shift;
+		offset = (index >> shift) & root->mask;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(node->height != 1);
+
+
+	store = &node->stores[offset];
+	for (i = 0, j = 0;
+	      j < root->stores_size - node->count &&
+	      i < root->stores_size - offset && j < num; i++) {
+		if (!store[i]) {
+			store[i] = item[j];
+			if (root->assign)
+				root->assign(node, index + i, item[j]);
+			j++;
+		}
+	}
+
+	node->count += j;
+	root->num += j;
+	num -= j;
+
+	while (sradix_node_full(root, node)) {
+		node = node->parent;
+		if (!node)
+			break;
+
+		node->fulls++;
+	}
+
+	if (unlikely(!node)) {
+		/* All nodes are full */
+		root->min = 1 << (root->height * root->shift);
+		root->enter_node = NULL;
+	} else {
+		root->min = index + i - 1;
+		root->min |= (1UL << (node->height - 1)) - 1;
+		root->min++;
+		root->enter_node = node;
+	}
+
+	if (num) {
+		item += j;
+		goto go_on;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ *	sradix_tree_shrink    -    shrink height of a sradix tree to minimal
+ *      @root		sradix tree root
+ *
+ */
+static inline void sradix_tree_shrink(struct sradix_tree_root *root)
+{
+	/* try to shrink tree height */
+	while (root->height > 1) {
+		struct sradix_tree_node *to_free = root->rnode;
+
+		/*
+		 * The candidate node has more than one child, or its child
+		 * is not at the leftmost store, we cannot shrink.
+		 */
+		if (to_free->count != 1 || !to_free->stores[0])
+			break;
+
+		root->rnode = to_free->stores[0];
+		root->rnode->parent = NULL;
+		root->height--;
+		if (unlikely(root->enter_node == to_free))
+			root->enter_node = NULL;
+		root->free(to_free);
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Del the item on the known leaf node and index
+ */
+void sradix_tree_delete_from_leaf(struct sradix_tree_root *root,
+				  struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned int offset;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *start, *end;
+
+	BUG_ON(node->height != 1);
+
+	start = node;
+	while (node && !(--node->count))
+		node = node->parent;
+
+	end = node;
+	if (!node) {
+		root->rnode = NULL;
+		root->height = 0;
+		root->min = 0;
+		root->num = 0;
+		root->enter_node = NULL;
+	} else {
+		offset = (index >> (root->shift * (node->height - 1))) & root->mask;
+		if (root->rm)
+			root->rm(node, offset);
+		node->stores[offset] = NULL;
+		root->num--;
+		if (root->min > index) {
+			root->min = index;
+			root->enter_node = node;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (start != end) {
+		do {
+			node = start;
+			start = start->parent;
+			if (unlikely(root->enter_node == node))
+				root->enter_node = end;
+			root->free(node);
+		} while (start != end);
+
+		/*
+		 * Note that shrink may free "end", so enter_node still need to
+		 * be checked inside.
+		 */
+		sradix_tree_shrink(root);
+	} else if (node->count == root->stores_size - 1) {
+		/* It WAS a full leaf node. Update the ancestors */
+		node = node->parent;
+		while (node) {
+			node->fulls--;
+			if (node->fulls != root->stores_size - 1)
+				break;
+
+			node = node->parent;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+void *sradix_tree_lookup(struct sradix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned int height, offset;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node;
+	int shift;
+
+	node = root->rnode;
+	if (node == NULL || (index >> (root->shift * root->height)))
+		return NULL;
+
+	height = root->height;
+	shift = (height - 1) * root->shift;
+
+	do {
+		offset = (index >> shift) & root->mask;
+		node = node->stores[offset];
+		if (!node)
+			return NULL;
+
+		shift -= root->shift;
+	} while (shift >= 0);
+
+	return node;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return the item if it exists, otherwise create it in place
+ * and return the created item.
+ */
+void *sradix_tree_lookup_create(struct sradix_tree_root *root,
+			unsigned long index, void *(*item_alloc)(void))
+{
+	unsigned int height, offset;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node, *tmp;
+	void *item;
+	int shift, error;
+
+	if (root->rnode == NULL || (index >> (root->shift * root->height))) {
+		if (item_alloc) {
+			error = sradix_tree_extend(root, index);
+			if (error)
+				return NULL;
+		} else {
+			return NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	node = root->rnode;
+	height = root->height;
+	shift = (height - 1) * root->shift;
+
+	do {
+		offset = (index >> shift) & root->mask;
+		if (!node->stores[offset]) {
+			if (!(tmp = root->alloc()))
+				return NULL;
+
+			tmp->height = shift / root->shift;
+			node->stores[offset] = tmp;
+			tmp->parent = node;
+			node->count++;
+			node = tmp;
+		} else {
+			node = node->stores[offset];
+		}
+
+		shift -= root->shift;
+	} while (shift > 0);
+
+	BUG_ON(node->height != 1);
+	offset = index & root->mask;
+	if (node->stores[offset]) {
+		return node->stores[offset];
+	} else if (item_alloc) {
+		if (!(item = item_alloc()))
+			return NULL;
+
+		node->stores[offset] = item;
+
+		/*
+		 * NOTE: we do NOT call root->assign here, since this item is
+		 * newly created by us having no meaning. Caller can call this
+		 * if it's necessary to do so.
+		 */
+
+		node->count++;
+		root->num++;
+
+		while (sradix_node_full(root, node)) {
+			node = node->parent;
+			if (!node)
+				break;
+
+			node->fulls++;
+		}
+
+		if (unlikely(!node)) {
+			/* All nodes are full */
+			root->min = 1 << (root->height * root->shift);
+		} else {
+			if (root->min == index) {
+				root->min |= (1UL << (node->height - 1)) - 1;
+				root->min++;
+				root->enter_node = node;
+			}
+		}
+
+		return item;
+	} else {
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+}
+
+int sradix_tree_delete(struct sradix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned int height, offset;
+	struct sradix_tree_node *node;
+	int shift;
+
+	node = root->rnode;
+	if (node == NULL || (index >> (root->shift * root->height)))
+		return -ENOENT;
+
+	height = root->height;
+	shift = (height - 1) * root->shift;
+
+	do {
+		offset = (index >> shift) & root->mask;
+		node = node->stores[offset];
+		if (!node)
+			return -ENOENT;
+
+		shift -= root->shift;
+	} while (shift > 0);
+
+	offset = index & root->mask;
+	if (!node->stores[offset])
+		return -ENOENT;
+
+	sradix_tree_delete_from_leaf(root, node, index);
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/mm/Kconfig b/mm/Kconfig
index 390165ffbb0f..50d02cfa0b68 100644
--- a/mm/Kconfig
+++ b/mm/Kconfig
@@ -317,6 +317,32 @@ config KSM
 	  See Documentation/vm/ksm.rst for more information: KSM is inactive
 	  until a program has madvised that an area is MADV_MERGEABLE, and
 	  root has set /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/run to 1 (if CONFIG_SYSFS is set).
+choice
+	prompt "Choose UKSM/KSM strategy"
+	default UKSM
+	depends on KSM
+	help
+	  This option allows to select a UKSM/KSM stragety.
+
+config UKSM
+	bool "Ultra-KSM for page merging"
+	depends on KSM
+	help
+	UKSM is inspired by the Linux kernel project \u2014 KSM(Kernel Same
+	page Merging), but with a fundamentally rewritten core algorithm. With
+	an advanced algorithm, UKSM now can transparently scans all anonymously
+	mapped user space applications with an significantly improved scan speed
+	and CPU efficiency. Since KVM is friendly to KSM, KVM can also benefit from
+	UKSM. Now UKSM has its first stable release and first real world enterprise user.
+	For more information, please goto its project page.
+	(github.com/dolohow/uksm)
+
+config KSM_LEGACY
+	bool "Legacy KSM implementation"
+	depends on KSM
+	help
+	The legacy KSM implementation from Red Hat.
+endchoice
 
 config DEFAULT_MMAP_MIN_ADDR
 	int "Low address space to protect from user allocation"
diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
index d73aed0fc99c..d6612b76c5da 100644
--- a/mm/Makefile
+++ b/mm/Makefile
@@ -76,7 +76,8 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_SPARSEMEM)	+= sparse.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SPARSEMEM_VMEMMAP) += sparse-vmemmap.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SLOB) += slob.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_MMU_NOTIFIER) += mmu_notifier.o
-obj-$(CONFIG_KSM) += ksm.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_KSM_LEGACY) += ksm.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_UKSM) += uksm.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_PAGE_POISONING) += page_poison.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SLAB) += slab.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SLUB) += slub.o
diff --git a/mm/ksm.c b/mm/ksm.c
index 0960750bb316..ae17158cb67a 100644
--- a/mm/ksm.c
+++ b/mm/ksm.c
@@ -858,17 +858,6 @@ static int unmerge_ksm_pages(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
 	return err;
 }
 
-static inline struct stable_node *page_stable_node(struct page *page)
-{
-	return PageKsm(page) ? page_rmapping(page) : NULL;
-}
-
-static inline void set_page_stable_node(struct page *page,
-					struct stable_node *stable_node)
-{
-	page->mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)stable_node | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
-}
-
 #ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
 /*
  * Only called through the sysfs control interface:
diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index c48f8df6e502..db47ee177008 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -146,6 +146,25 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(zero_pfn);
 
 unsigned long highest_memmap_pfn __read_mostly;
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+unsigned long uksm_zero_pfn __read_mostly;
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(uksm_zero_pfn);
+struct page *empty_uksm_zero_page;
+
+static int __init setup_uksm_zero_page(void)
+{
+	empty_uksm_zero_page = alloc_pages(__GFP_ZERO & ~__GFP_MOVABLE, 0);
+	if (!empty_uksm_zero_page)
+		panic("Oh boy, that early out of memory?");
+
+	SetPageReserved(empty_uksm_zero_page);
+	uksm_zero_pfn = page_to_pfn(empty_uksm_zero_page);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+core_initcall(setup_uksm_zero_page);
+#endif
+
 /*
  * CONFIG_MMU architectures set up ZERO_PAGE in their paging_init()
  */
@@ -161,6 +180,7 @@ void mm_trace_rss_stat(struct mm_struct *mm, int member, long count)
 	trace_rss_stat(mm, member, count);
 }
 
+
 #if defined(SPLIT_RSS_COUNTING)
 
 void sync_mm_rss(struct mm_struct *mm)
@@ -869,6 +889,11 @@ copy_present_pte(struct vm_area_struct *dst_vma, struct vm_area_struct *src_vma,
 		get_page(page);
 		page_dup_rmap(page, false);
 		rss[mm_counter(page)]++;
+
+		/* Should return NULL in vm_normal_page() */
+		uksm_bugon_zeropage(pte);
+	} else {
+		uksm_map_zero_page(pte);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -1237,8 +1262,10 @@ static unsigned long zap_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
 			ptent = ptep_get_and_clear_full(mm, addr, pte,
 							tlb->fullmm);
 			tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, pte, addr);
-			if (unlikely(!page))
+			if (unlikely(!page)) {
+				uksm_unmap_zero_page(ptent);
 				continue;
+			}
 
 			if (!PageAnon(page)) {
 				if (pte_dirty(ptent)) {
@@ -2586,6 +2613,7 @@ static inline bool cow_user_page(struct page *dst, struct page *src,
 
 	if (likely(src)) {
 		copy_user_highpage(dst, src, addr, vma);
+		uksm_cow_page(vma, src);
 		return true;
 	}
 
@@ -2832,6 +2860,7 @@ static vm_fault_t wp_page_copy(struct vm_fault *vmf)
 							      vmf->address);
 		if (!new_page)
 			goto oom;
+		uksm_cow_pte(vma, vmf->orig_pte);
 	} else {
 		new_page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma,
 				vmf->address);
@@ -2874,7 +2903,9 @@ static vm_fault_t wp_page_copy(struct vm_fault *vmf)
 						mm_counter_file(old_page));
 				inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
 			}
+			uksm_bugon_zeropage(vmf->orig_pte);
 		} else {
+			uksm_unmap_zero_page(vmf->orig_pte);
 			inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
 		}
 		flush_cache_page(vma, vmf->address, pte_pfn(vmf->orig_pte));
diff --git a/mm/mmap.c b/mm/mmap.c
index 5c8b4485860d..b8dd56dd900d 100644
--- a/mm/mmap.c
+++ b/mm/mmap.c
@@ -46,6 +46,7 @@
 #include <linux/moduleparam.h>
 #include <linux/pkeys.h>
 #include <linux/oom.h>
+#include <linux/ksm.h>
 #include <linux/sched/mm.h>
 
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
@@ -181,6 +182,7 @@ static struct vm_area_struct *remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
 	if (vma->vm_file)
 		fput(vma->vm_file);
 	mpol_put(vma_policy(vma));
+       uksm_remove_vma(vma);
 	vm_area_free(vma);
 	return next;
 }
@@ -750,9 +752,16 @@ int __vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
 	long adjust_next = 0;
 	int remove_next = 0;
 
+/*
+ * to avoid deadlock, ksm_remove_vma must be done before any spin_lock is
+ * acquired
+ */
+	uksm_remove_vma(vma);
+
 	if (next && !insert) {
 		struct vm_area_struct *exporter = NULL, *importer = NULL;
 
+		uksm_remove_vma(next);
 		if (end >= next->vm_end) {
 			/*
 			 * vma expands, overlapping all the next, and
@@ -883,6 +892,7 @@ int __vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
 		end_changed = true;
 	}
 	vma->vm_pgoff = pgoff;
+
 	if (adjust_next) {
 		next->vm_start += adjust_next;
 		next->vm_pgoff += adjust_next >> PAGE_SHIFT;
@@ -987,6 +997,7 @@ int __vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
 		if (remove_next == 2) {
 			remove_next = 1;
 			end = next->vm_end;
+			uksm_remove_vma(next);
 			goto again;
 		}
 		else if (next)
@@ -1013,10 +1024,14 @@ int __vma_adjust(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
 			 */
 			VM_WARN_ON(mm->highest_vm_end != vm_end_gap(vma));
 		}
+	} else {
+		if (next && !insert)
+			uksm_vma_add_new(next);
 	}
 	if (insert && file)
 		uprobe_mmap(insert);
 
+	uksm_vma_add_new(vma);
 	validate_mm(mm);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -1472,6 +1487,9 @@ unsigned long do_mmap(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
 	vm_flags = calc_vm_prot_bits(prot, pkey) | calc_vm_flag_bits(flags) |
 			mm->def_flags | VM_MAYREAD | VM_MAYWRITE | VM_MAYEXEC;
 
+	/* If uksm is enabled, we add VM_MERGEABLE to new VMAs. */
+	uksm_vm_flags_mod(&vm_flags);
+
 	if (flags & MAP_LOCKED)
 		if (!can_do_mlock())
 			return -EPERM;
@@ -1867,6 +1885,7 @@ unsigned long mmap_region(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
 			allow_write_access(file);
 	}
 	file = vma->vm_file;
+	uksm_vma_add_new(vma);
 out:
 	perf_event_mmap(vma);
 
@@ -1909,6 +1928,7 @@ unsigned long mmap_region(struct file *file, unsigned long addr,
 	if (vm_flags & VM_DENYWRITE)
 		allow_write_access(file);
 free_vma:
+	uksm_remove_vma(vma);
 	vm_area_free(vma);
 unacct_error:
 	if (charged)
@@ -2768,6 +2788,8 @@ int __split_vma(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
 	else
 		err = vma_adjust(vma, vma->vm_start, addr, vma->vm_pgoff, new);
 
+	uksm_vma_add_new(new);
+
 	/* Success. */
 	if (!err)
 		return 0;
@@ -3075,6 +3097,7 @@ static int do_brk_flags(unsigned long addr, unsigned long len, unsigned long fla
 	if ((flags & (~VM_EXEC)) != 0)
 		return -EINVAL;
 	flags |= VM_DATA_DEFAULT_FLAGS | VM_ACCOUNT | mm->def_flags;
+	uksm_vm_flags_mod(&flags);
 
 	mapped_addr = get_unmapped_area(NULL, addr, len, 0, MAP_FIXED);
 	if (IS_ERR_VALUE(mapped_addr))
@@ -3120,6 +3143,7 @@ static int do_brk_flags(unsigned long addr, unsigned long len, unsigned long fla
 	vma->vm_flags = flags;
 	vma->vm_page_prot = vm_get_page_prot(flags);
 	vma_link(mm, vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
+	uksm_vma_add_new(vma);
 out:
 	perf_event_mmap(vma);
 	mm->total_vm += len >> PAGE_SHIFT;
@@ -3197,6 +3221,12 @@ void exit_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm)
 		mmap_write_unlock(mm);
 	}
 
+	/*
+	 * Taking write lock on mmap does not harm others,
+	 * but it's crucial for uksm to avoid races.
+	 */
+	mmap_write_lock(mm);
+
 	if (mm->locked_vm) {
 		vma = mm->mmap;
 		while (vma) {
@@ -3232,6 +3262,11 @@ void exit_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm)
 		cond_resched();
 	}
 	vm_unacct_memory(nr_accounted);
+
+	mm->mmap = NULL;
+	mm->mm_rb = RB_ROOT;
+	vmacache_invalidate(mm);
+	mmap_write_unlock(mm);
 }
 
 /* Insert vm structure into process list sorted by address
@@ -3339,6 +3374,7 @@ struct vm_area_struct *copy_vma(struct vm_area_struct **vmap,
 			new_vma->vm_ops->open(new_vma);
 		vma_link(mm, new_vma, prev, rb_link, rb_parent);
 		*need_rmap_locks = false;
+		uksm_vma_add_new(new_vma);
 	}
 	return new_vma;
 
@@ -3491,6 +3527,7 @@ static struct vm_area_struct *__install_special_mapping(
 	vm_stat_account(mm, vma->vm_flags, len >> PAGE_SHIFT);
 
 	perf_event_mmap(vma);
+	uksm_vma_add_new(vma);
 
 	return vma;
 
diff --git a/mm/uksm.c b/mm/uksm.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e4732c00be69
--- /dev/null
+++ b/mm/uksm.c
@@ -0,0 +1,5614 @@
+/*
+ * Ultra KSM. Copyright (C) 2011-2012 Nai Xia
+ *
+ * This is an improvement upon KSM. Some basic data structures and routines
+ * are borrowed from ksm.c .
+ *
+ * Its new features:
+ * 1. Full system scan:
+ *      It automatically scans all user processes' anonymous VMAs. Kernel-user
+ *      interaction to submit a memory area to KSM is no longer needed.
+ *
+ * 2. Rich area detection:
+ *      It automatically detects rich areas containing abundant duplicated
+ *      pages based. Rich areas are given a full scan speed. Poor areas are
+ *      sampled at a reasonable speed with very low CPU consumption.
+ *
+ * 3. Ultra Per-page scan speed improvement:
+ *      A new hash algorithm is proposed. As a result, on a machine with
+ *      Core(TM)2 Quad Q9300 CPU in 32-bit mode and 800MHZ DDR2 main memory, it
+ *      can scan memory areas that does not contain duplicated pages at speed of
+ *      627MB/sec ~ 2445MB/sec and can merge duplicated areas at speed of
+ *      477MB/sec ~ 923MB/sec.
+ *
+ * 4. Thrashing area avoidance:
+ *      Thrashing area(an VMA that has frequent Ksm page break-out) can be
+ *      filtered out. My benchmark shows it's more efficient than KSM's per-page
+ *      hash value based volatile page detection.
+ *
+ *
+ * 5. Misc changes upon KSM:
+ *      * It has a fully x86-opitmized memcmp dedicated for 4-byte-aligned page
+ *        comparison. It's much faster than default C version on x86.
+ *      * rmap_item now has an struct *page member to loosely cache a
+ *        address-->page mapping, which reduces too much time-costly
+ *        follow_page().
+ *      * The VMA creation/exit procedures are hooked to let the Ultra KSM know.
+ *      * try_to_merge_two_pages() now can revert a pte if it fails. No break_
+ *        ksm is needed for this case.
+ *
+ * 6. Full Zero Page consideration(contributed by Figo Zhang)
+ *    Now uksmd consider full zero pages as special pages and merge them to an
+ *    special unswappable uksm zero page.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/errno.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mman.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/sched/mm.h>
+#include <linux/sched/coredump.h>
+#include <linux/sched/cputime.h>
+#include <linux/rwsem.h>
+#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+#include <linux/rmap.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/jhash.h>
+#include <linux/delay.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
+#include <linux/wait.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/memory.h>
+#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
+#include <linux/swap.h>
+#include <linux/ksm.h>
+#include <linux/crypto.h>
+#include <linux/scatterlist.h>
+#include <crypto/hash.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <linux/math64.h>
+#include <linux/gcd.h>
+#include <linux/freezer.h>
+#include <linux/oom.h>
+#include <linux/numa.h>
+#include <linux/sradix-tree.h>
+
+#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
+#include "internal.h"
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86
+#undef memcmp
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
+#define memcmp memcmpx86_32
+/*
+ * Compare 4-byte-aligned address s1 and s2, with length n
+ */
+int memcmpx86_32(void *s1, void *s2, size_t n)
+{
+	size_t num = n / 4;
+	register int res;
+
+	__asm__ __volatile__
+	(
+	 "testl %3,%3\n\t"
+	 "repe; cmpsd\n\t"
+	 "je        1f\n\t"
+	 "sbbl      %0,%0\n\t"
+	 "orl       $1,%0\n"
+	 "1:"
+	 : "=&a" (res), "+&S" (s1), "+&D" (s2), "+&c" (num)
+	 : "0" (0)
+	 : "cc");
+
+	return res;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Check the page is all zero ?
+ */
+static int is_full_zero(const void *s1, size_t len)
+{
+	unsigned char same;
+
+	len /= 4;
+
+	__asm__ __volatile__
+	("repe; scasl;"
+	 "sete %0"
+	 : "=qm" (same), "+D" (s1), "+c" (len)
+	 : "a" (0)
+	 : "cc");
+
+	return same;
+}
+
+
+#elif defined(CONFIG_X86_64)
+#define memcmp memcmpx86_64
+/*
+ * Compare 8-byte-aligned address s1 and s2, with length n
+ */
+int memcmpx86_64(void *s1, void *s2, size_t n)
+{
+	size_t num = n / 8;
+	register int res;
+
+	__asm__ __volatile__
+	(
+	 "testq %q3,%q3\n\t"
+	 "repe; cmpsq\n\t"
+	 "je        1f\n\t"
+	 "sbbq      %q0,%q0\n\t"
+	 "orq       $1,%q0\n"
+	 "1:"
+	 : "=&a" (res), "+&S" (s1), "+&D" (s2), "+&c" (num)
+	 : "0" (0)
+	 : "cc");
+
+	return res;
+}
+
+static int is_full_zero(const void *s1, size_t len)
+{
+	unsigned char same;
+
+	len /= 8;
+
+	__asm__ __volatile__
+	("repe; scasq;"
+	 "sete %0"
+	 : "=qm" (same), "+D" (s1), "+c" (len)
+	 : "a" (0)
+	 : "cc");
+
+	return same;
+}
+
+#endif
+#else
+static int is_full_zero(const void *s1, size_t len)
+{
+	unsigned long *src = s1;
+	int i;
+
+	len /= sizeof(*src);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+		if (src[i])
+			return 0;
+	}
+
+	return 1;
+}
+#endif
+
+#define UKSM_RUNG_ROUND_FINISHED  (1 << 0)
+#define TIME_RATIO_SCALE	10000
+
+#define SLOT_TREE_NODE_SHIFT	8
+#define SLOT_TREE_NODE_STORE_SIZE	(1UL << SLOT_TREE_NODE_SHIFT)
+struct slot_tree_node {
+	unsigned long size;
+	struct sradix_tree_node snode;
+	void *stores[SLOT_TREE_NODE_STORE_SIZE];
+};
+
+static struct kmem_cache *slot_tree_node_cachep;
+
+static struct sradix_tree_node *slot_tree_node_alloc(void)
+{
+	struct slot_tree_node *p;
+
+	p = kmem_cache_zalloc(slot_tree_node_cachep, GFP_KERNEL |
+			      __GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (!p)
+		return NULL;
+
+	return &p->snode;
+}
+
+static void slot_tree_node_free(struct sradix_tree_node *node)
+{
+	struct slot_tree_node *p;
+
+	p = container_of(node, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+	kmem_cache_free(slot_tree_node_cachep, p);
+}
+
+static void slot_tree_node_extend(struct sradix_tree_node *parent,
+				  struct sradix_tree_node *child)
+{
+	struct slot_tree_node *p, *c;
+
+	p = container_of(parent, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+	c = container_of(child, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+
+	p->size += c->size;
+}
+
+void slot_tree_node_assign(struct sradix_tree_node *node,
+			   unsigned int index, void *item)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot = item;
+	struct slot_tree_node *cur;
+
+	slot->snode = node;
+	slot->sindex = index;
+
+	while (node) {
+		cur = container_of(node, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+		cur->size += slot->pages;
+		node = node->parent;
+	}
+}
+
+void slot_tree_node_rm(struct sradix_tree_node *node, unsigned int offset)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+	struct slot_tree_node *cur;
+	unsigned long pages;
+
+	if (node->height == 1) {
+		slot = node->stores[offset];
+		pages = slot->pages;
+	} else {
+		cur = container_of(node->stores[offset],
+				   struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+		pages = cur->size;
+	}
+
+	while (node) {
+		cur = container_of(node, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+		cur->size -= pages;
+		node = node->parent;
+	}
+}
+
+unsigned long slot_iter_index;
+int slot_iter(void *item,  unsigned long height)
+{
+	struct slot_tree_node *node;
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+
+	if (height == 1) {
+		slot = item;
+		if (slot_iter_index < slot->pages) {
+			/*in this one*/
+			return 1;
+		} else {
+			slot_iter_index -= slot->pages;
+			return 0;
+		}
+
+	} else {
+		node = container_of(item, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+		if (slot_iter_index < node->size) {
+			/*in this one*/
+			return 1;
+		} else {
+			slot_iter_index -= node->size;
+			return 0;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+
+static inline void slot_tree_init_root(struct sradix_tree_root *root)
+{
+	init_sradix_tree_root(root, SLOT_TREE_NODE_SHIFT);
+	root->alloc = slot_tree_node_alloc;
+	root->free = slot_tree_node_free;
+	root->extend = slot_tree_node_extend;
+	root->assign = slot_tree_node_assign;
+	root->rm = slot_tree_node_rm;
+}
+
+void slot_tree_init(void)
+{
+	slot_tree_node_cachep = kmem_cache_create("slot_tree_node",
+				sizeof(struct slot_tree_node), 0,
+				SLAB_PANIC | SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT,
+				NULL);
+}
+
+
+/* Each rung of this ladder is a list of VMAs having a same scan ratio */
+struct scan_rung {
+	//struct list_head scanned_list;
+	struct sradix_tree_root vma_root;
+	struct sradix_tree_root vma_root2;
+
+	struct vma_slot *current_scan;
+	unsigned long current_offset;
+
+	/*
+	 * The initial value for current_offset, it should loop over
+	 * [0~ step - 1] to let all slot have its chance to be scanned.
+	 */
+	unsigned long offset_init;
+	unsigned long step; /* dynamic step for current_offset */
+	unsigned int flags;
+	unsigned long pages_to_scan;
+	//unsigned long fully_scanned_slots;
+	/*
+	 * a little bit tricky - if cpu_time_ratio > 0, then the value is the
+	 * the cpu time ratio it can spend in rung_i for every scan
+	 * period. if < 0, then it is the cpu time ratio relative to the
+	 * max cpu percentage user specified. Both in unit of
+	 * 1/TIME_RATIO_SCALE
+	 */
+	int cpu_ratio;
+
+	/*
+	 * How long it will take for all slots in this rung to be fully
+	 * scanned? If it's zero, we don't care about the cover time:
+	 * it's fully scanned.
+	 */
+	unsigned int cover_msecs;
+	//unsigned long vma_num;
+	//unsigned long pages; /* Sum of all slot's pages in rung */
+};
+
+/**
+ * node of either the stable or unstale rbtree
+ *
+ */
+struct tree_node {
+	struct rb_node node; /* link in the main (un)stable rbtree */
+	struct rb_root sub_root; /* rb_root for sublevel collision rbtree */
+	u32 hash;
+	unsigned long count; /* TODO: merged with sub_root */
+	struct list_head all_list; /* all tree nodes in stable/unstable tree */
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct stable_node - node of the stable rbtree
+ * @node: rb node of this ksm page in the stable tree
+ * @hlist: hlist head of rmap_items using this ksm page
+ * @kpfn: page frame number of this ksm page
+ */
+struct stable_node {
+	struct rb_node node; /* link in sub-rbtree */
+	struct tree_node *tree_node; /* it's tree node root in stable tree, NULL if it's in hell list */
+	struct hlist_head hlist;
+	unsigned long kpfn;
+	u32 hash_max; /* if ==0 then it's not been calculated yet */
+	struct list_head all_list; /* in a list for all stable nodes */
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct node_vma - group rmap_items linked in a same stable
+ * node together.
+ */
+struct node_vma {
+	union {
+		struct vma_slot *slot;
+		unsigned long key;  /* slot is used as key sorted on hlist */
+	};
+	struct hlist_node hlist;
+	struct hlist_head rmap_hlist;
+	struct stable_node *head;
+};
+
+/**
+ * struct rmap_item - reverse mapping item for virtual addresses
+ * @rmap_list: next rmap_item in mm_slot's singly-linked rmap_list
+ * @anon_vma: pointer to anon_vma for this mm,address, when in stable tree
+ * @mm: the memory structure this rmap_item is pointing into
+ * @address: the virtual address this rmap_item tracks (+ flags in low bits)
+ * @node: rb node of this rmap_item in the unstable tree
+ * @head: pointer to stable_node heading this list in the stable tree
+ * @hlist: link into hlist of rmap_items hanging off that stable_node
+ */
+struct rmap_item {
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+	struct page *page;
+	unsigned long address;	/* + low bits used for flags below */
+	unsigned long hash_round;
+	unsigned long entry_index;
+	union {
+		struct {/* when in unstable tree */
+			struct rb_node node;
+			struct tree_node *tree_node;
+			u32 hash_max;
+		};
+		struct { /* when in stable tree */
+			struct node_vma *head;
+			struct hlist_node hlist;
+			struct anon_vma *anon_vma;
+		};
+	};
+} __aligned(4);
+
+struct rmap_list_entry {
+	union {
+		struct rmap_item *item;
+		unsigned long addr;
+	};
+	/* lowest bit is used for is_addr tag */
+} __aligned(4); /* 4 aligned to fit in to pages*/
+
+
+/* Basic data structure definition ends */
+
+
+/*
+ * Flags for rmap_item to judge if it's listed in the stable/unstable tree.
+ * The flags use the low bits of rmap_item.address
+ */
+#define UNSTABLE_FLAG	0x1
+#define STABLE_FLAG	0x2
+#define get_rmap_addr(x)	((x)->address & PAGE_MASK)
+
+/*
+ * rmap_list_entry helpers
+ */
+#define IS_ADDR_FLAG	1
+#define is_addr(ptr)		((unsigned long)(ptr) & IS_ADDR_FLAG)
+#define set_is_addr(ptr)	((ptr) |= IS_ADDR_FLAG)
+#define get_clean_addr(ptr)	(((ptr) & ~(__typeof__(ptr))IS_ADDR_FLAG))
+
+
+/*
+ * High speed caches for frequently allocated and freed structs
+ */
+static struct kmem_cache *rmap_item_cache;
+static struct kmem_cache *stable_node_cache;
+static struct kmem_cache *node_vma_cache;
+static struct kmem_cache *vma_slot_cache;
+static struct kmem_cache *tree_node_cache;
+#define UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(__struct, __flags) kmem_cache_create("uksm_"#__struct,\
+		sizeof(struct __struct), __alignof__(struct __struct),\
+		(__flags), NULL)
+
+/* Array of all scan_rung, uksm_scan_ladder[0] having the minimum scan ratio */
+#define SCAN_LADDER_SIZE 4
+static struct scan_rung uksm_scan_ladder[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE];
+
+/* The evaluation rounds uksmd has finished */
+static unsigned long long uksm_eval_round = 1;
+
+/*
+ * we add 1 to this var when we consider we should rebuild the whole
+ * unstable tree.
+ */
+static unsigned long uksm_hash_round = 1;
+
+/*
+ * How many times the whole memory is scanned.
+ */
+static unsigned long long fully_scanned_round = 1;
+
+/* The total number of virtual pages of all vma slots */
+static u64 uksm_pages_total;
+
+/* The number of pages has been scanned since the start up */
+static u64 uksm_pages_scanned;
+
+static u64 scanned_virtual_pages;
+
+/* The number of pages has been scanned since last encode_benefit call */
+static u64 uksm_pages_scanned_last;
+
+/* If the scanned number is tooo large, we encode it here */
+static u64 pages_scanned_stored;
+
+static unsigned long pages_scanned_base;
+
+/* The number of nodes in the stable tree */
+static unsigned long uksm_pages_shared;
+
+/* The number of page slots additionally sharing those nodes */
+static unsigned long uksm_pages_sharing;
+
+/* The number of nodes in the unstable tree */
+static unsigned long uksm_pages_unshared;
+
+/*
+ * Milliseconds ksmd should sleep between scans,
+ * >= 100ms to be consistent with
+ * scan_time_to_sleep_msec()
+ */
+static unsigned int uksm_sleep_jiffies;
+
+/* The real value for the uksmd next sleep */
+static unsigned int uksm_sleep_real;
+
+/* Saved value for user input uksm_sleep_jiffies when it's enlarged */
+static unsigned int uksm_sleep_saved;
+
+/* Max percentage of cpu utilization ksmd can take to scan in one batch */
+static unsigned int uksm_max_cpu_percentage;
+
+static int uksm_cpu_governor;
+
+static char *uksm_cpu_governor_str[4] = { "full", "medium", "low", "quiet" };
+
+struct uksm_cpu_preset_s {
+	int cpu_ratio[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE];
+	unsigned int cover_msecs[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE];
+	unsigned int max_cpu; /* percentage */
+};
+
+struct uksm_cpu_preset_s uksm_cpu_preset[4] = {
+	{ {20, 40, -2500, -10000}, {1000, 500, 200, 50}, 95},
+	{ {20, 30, -2500, -10000}, {1000, 500, 400, 100}, 50},
+	{ {10, 20, -5000, -10000}, {1500, 1000, 1000, 250}, 20},
+	{ {10, 20, 40, 75}, {2000, 1000, 1000, 1000}, 1},
+};
+
+/* The default value for uksm_ema_page_time if it's not initialized */
+#define UKSM_PAGE_TIME_DEFAULT	500
+
+/*cost to scan one page by expotional moving average in nsecs */
+static unsigned long uksm_ema_page_time = UKSM_PAGE_TIME_DEFAULT;
+
+/* The expotional moving average alpha weight, in percentage. */
+#define EMA_ALPHA	20
+
+/*
+ * The threshold used to filter out thrashing areas,
+ * If it == 0, filtering is disabled, otherwise it's the percentage up-bound
+ * of the thrashing ratio of all areas. Any area with a bigger thrashing ratio
+ * will be considered as having a zero duplication ratio.
+ */
+static unsigned int uksm_thrash_threshold = 50;
+
+/* How much dedup ratio is considered to be abundant*/
+static unsigned int uksm_abundant_threshold = 10;
+
+/* All slots having merged pages in this eval round. */
+struct list_head vma_slot_dedup = LIST_HEAD_INIT(vma_slot_dedup);
+
+/* How many times the ksmd has slept since startup */
+static unsigned long long uksm_sleep_times;
+
+#define UKSM_RUN_STOP	0
+#define UKSM_RUN_MERGE	1
+static unsigned int uksm_run = 1;
+
+static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(uksm_thread_wait);
+static DEFINE_MUTEX(uksm_thread_mutex);
+
+/*
+ * List vma_slot_new is for newly created vma_slot waiting to be added by
+ * ksmd. If one cannot be added(e.g. due to it's too small), it's moved to
+ * vma_slot_noadd. vma_slot_del is the list for vma_slot whose corresponding
+ * VMA has been removed/freed.
+ */
+struct list_head vma_slot_new = LIST_HEAD_INIT(vma_slot_new);
+struct list_head vma_slot_noadd = LIST_HEAD_INIT(vma_slot_noadd);
+struct list_head vma_slot_del = LIST_HEAD_INIT(vma_slot_del);
+static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(vma_slot_list_lock);
+
+/* The unstable tree heads */
+static struct rb_root root_unstable_tree = RB_ROOT;
+
+/*
+ * All tree_nodes are in a list to be freed at once when unstable tree is
+ * freed after each scan round.
+ */
+static struct list_head unstable_tree_node_list =
+				LIST_HEAD_INIT(unstable_tree_node_list);
+
+/* List contains all stable nodes */
+static struct list_head stable_node_list = LIST_HEAD_INIT(stable_node_list);
+
+/*
+ * When the hash strength is changed, the stable tree must be delta_hashed and
+ * re-structured. We use two set of below structs to speed up the
+ * re-structuring of stable tree.
+ */
+static struct list_head
+stable_tree_node_list[2] = {LIST_HEAD_INIT(stable_tree_node_list[0]),
+			    LIST_HEAD_INIT(stable_tree_node_list[1])};
+
+static struct list_head *stable_tree_node_listp = &stable_tree_node_list[0];
+static struct rb_root root_stable_tree[2] = {RB_ROOT, RB_ROOT};
+static struct rb_root *root_stable_treep = &root_stable_tree[0];
+static unsigned long stable_tree_index;
+
+/* The hash strength needed to hash a full page */
+#define HASH_STRENGTH_FULL		(PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(u32))
+
+/* The hash strength needed for loop-back hashing */
+#define HASH_STRENGTH_MAX		(HASH_STRENGTH_FULL + 10)
+
+/* The random offsets in a page */
+static u32 *random_nums;
+
+/* The hash strength */
+static unsigned long hash_strength = HASH_STRENGTH_FULL >> 4;
+
+/* The delta value each time the hash strength increases or decreases */
+static unsigned long hash_strength_delta;
+#define HASH_STRENGTH_DELTA_MAX	5
+
+/* The time we have saved due to random_sample_hash */
+static u64 rshash_pos;
+
+/* The time we have wasted due to hash collision */
+static u64 rshash_neg;
+
+struct uksm_benefit {
+	u64 pos;
+	u64 neg;
+	u64 scanned;
+	unsigned long base;
+} benefit;
+
+/*
+ * The relative cost of memcmp, compared to 1 time unit of random sample
+ * hash, this value is tested when ksm module is initialized
+ */
+static unsigned long memcmp_cost;
+
+static unsigned long  rshash_neg_cont_zero;
+static unsigned long  rshash_cont_obscure;
+
+/* The possible states of hash strength adjustment heuristic */
+enum rshash_states {
+		RSHASH_STILL,
+		RSHASH_TRYUP,
+		RSHASH_TRYDOWN,
+		RSHASH_NEW,
+		RSHASH_PRE_STILL,
+};
+
+/* The possible direction we are about to adjust hash strength */
+enum rshash_direct {
+	GO_UP,
+	GO_DOWN,
+	OBSCURE,
+	STILL,
+};
+
+/* random sampling hash state machine */
+static struct {
+	enum rshash_states state;
+	enum rshash_direct pre_direct;
+	u8 below_count;
+	/* Keep a lookup window of size 5, iff above_count/below_count > 3
+	 * in this window we stop trying.
+	 */
+	u8 lookup_window_index;
+	u64 stable_benefit;
+	unsigned long turn_point_down;
+	unsigned long turn_benefit_down;
+	unsigned long turn_point_up;
+	unsigned long turn_benefit_up;
+	unsigned long stable_point;
+} rshash_state;
+
+/*zero page hash table, hash_strength [0 ~ HASH_STRENGTH_MAX]*/
+static u32 *zero_hash_table;
+
+static inline struct node_vma *alloc_node_vma(void)
+{
+	struct node_vma *node_vma;
+
+	node_vma = kmem_cache_zalloc(node_vma_cache, GFP_KERNEL |
+				     __GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (node_vma) {
+		INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&node_vma->rmap_hlist);
+		INIT_HLIST_NODE(&node_vma->hlist);
+	}
+	return node_vma;
+}
+
+static inline void free_node_vma(struct node_vma *node_vma)
+{
+	kmem_cache_free(node_vma_cache, node_vma);
+}
+
+
+static inline struct vma_slot *alloc_vma_slot(void)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+
+	/*
+	 * In case ksm is not initialized by now.
+	 * Oops, we need to consider the call site of uksm_init() in the future.
+	 */
+	if (!vma_slot_cache)
+		return NULL;
+
+	slot = kmem_cache_zalloc(vma_slot_cache, GFP_KERNEL |
+				 __GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (slot) {
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&slot->slot_list);
+		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&slot->dedup_list);
+		slot->flags |= UKSM_SLOT_NEED_RERAND;
+	}
+	return slot;
+}
+
+static inline void free_vma_slot(struct vma_slot *vma_slot)
+{
+	kmem_cache_free(vma_slot_cache, vma_slot);
+}
+
+
+
+static inline struct rmap_item *alloc_rmap_item(void)
+{
+	struct rmap_item *rmap_item;
+
+	rmap_item = kmem_cache_zalloc(rmap_item_cache, GFP_KERNEL |
+				      __GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (rmap_item) {
+		/* bug on lowest bit is not clear for flag use */
+		BUG_ON(is_addr(rmap_item));
+	}
+	return rmap_item;
+}
+
+static inline void free_rmap_item(struct rmap_item *rmap_item)
+{
+	rmap_item->slot = NULL;	/* debug safety */
+	kmem_cache_free(rmap_item_cache, rmap_item);
+}
+
+static inline struct stable_node *alloc_stable_node(void)
+{
+	struct stable_node *node;
+
+	node = kmem_cache_alloc(stable_node_cache, GFP_KERNEL |
+				__GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (!node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&node->hlist);
+	list_add(&node->all_list, &stable_node_list);
+	return node;
+}
+
+static inline void free_stable_node(struct stable_node *stable_node)
+{
+	list_del(&stable_node->all_list);
+	kmem_cache_free(stable_node_cache, stable_node);
+}
+
+static inline struct tree_node *alloc_tree_node(struct list_head *list)
+{
+	struct tree_node *node;
+
+	node = kmem_cache_zalloc(tree_node_cache, GFP_KERNEL |
+				 __GFP_NORETRY | __GFP_NOWARN);
+	if (!node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	list_add(&node->all_list, list);
+	return node;
+}
+
+static inline void free_tree_node(struct tree_node *node)
+{
+	list_del(&node->all_list);
+	kmem_cache_free(tree_node_cache, node);
+}
+
+static void uksm_drop_anon_vma(struct rmap_item *rmap_item)
+{
+	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = rmap_item->anon_vma;
+
+	put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * Remove a stable node from stable_tree, may unlink from its tree_node and
+ * may remove its parent tree_node if no other stable node is pending.
+ *
+ * @stable_node	    The node need to be removed
+ * @unlink_rb	    Will this node be unlinked from the rbtree?
+ * @remove_tree_    node Will its tree_node be removed if empty?
+ */
+static void remove_node_from_stable_tree(struct stable_node *stable_node,
+					 int unlink_rb,  int remove_tree_node)
+{
+	struct node_vma *node_vma;
+	struct rmap_item *rmap_item;
+	struct hlist_node *n;
+
+	if (!hlist_empty(&stable_node->hlist)) {
+		hlist_for_each_entry_safe(node_vma, n,
+					  &stable_node->hlist, hlist) {
+			hlist_for_each_entry(rmap_item, &node_vma->rmap_hlist, hlist) {
+				uksm_pages_sharing--;
+
+				uksm_drop_anon_vma(rmap_item);
+				rmap_item->address &= PAGE_MASK;
+			}
+			free_node_vma(node_vma);
+			cond_resched();
+		}
+
+		/* the last one is counted as shared */
+		uksm_pages_shared--;
+		uksm_pages_sharing++;
+	}
+
+	if (stable_node->tree_node && unlink_rb) {
+		rb_erase(&stable_node->node,
+			 &stable_node->tree_node->sub_root);
+
+		if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&stable_node->tree_node->sub_root) &&
+		    remove_tree_node) {
+			rb_erase(&stable_node->tree_node->node,
+				 root_stable_treep);
+			free_tree_node(stable_node->tree_node);
+		} else {
+			stable_node->tree_node->count--;
+		}
+	}
+
+	free_stable_node(stable_node);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * get_uksm_page: checks if the page indicated by the stable node
+ * is still its ksm page, despite having held no reference to it.
+ * In which case we can trust the content of the page, and it
+ * returns the gotten page; but if the page has now been zapped,
+ * remove the stale node from the stable tree and return NULL.
+ *
+ * You would expect the stable_node to hold a reference to the ksm page.
+ * But if it increments the page's count, swapping out has to wait for
+ * ksmd to come around again before it can free the page, which may take
+ * seconds or even minutes: much too unresponsive.  So instead we use a
+ * "keyhole reference": access to the ksm page from the stable node peeps
+ * out through its keyhole to see if that page still holds the right key,
+ * pointing back to this stable node.  This relies on freeing a PageAnon
+ * page to reset its page->mapping to NULL, and relies on no other use of
+ * a page to put something that might look like our key in page->mapping.
+ *
+ * include/linux/pagemap.h page_cache_get_speculative() is a good reference,
+ * but this is different - made simpler by uksm_thread_mutex being held, but
+ * interesting for assuming that no other use of the struct page could ever
+ * put our expected_mapping into page->mapping (or a field of the union which
+ * coincides with page->mapping).  The RCU calls are not for KSM at all, but
+ * to keep the page_count protocol described with page_cache_get_speculative.
+ *
+ * Note: it is possible that get_uksm_page() will return NULL one moment,
+ * then page the next, if the page is in between page_freeze_refs() and
+ * page_unfreeze_refs(): this shouldn't be a problem anywhere, the page
+ * is on its way to being freed; but it is an anomaly to bear in mind.
+ *
+ * @unlink_rb:			if the removal of this node will firstly unlink from
+ * its rbtree. stable_node_reinsert will prevent this when restructuring the
+ * node from its old tree.
+ *
+ * @remove_tree_node:	if this is the last one of its tree_node, will the
+ * tree_node be freed ? If we are inserting stable node, this tree_node may
+ * be reused, so don't free it.
+ */
+static struct page *get_uksm_page(struct stable_node *stable_node,
+				 int unlink_rb, int remove_tree_node)
+{
+	struct page *page;
+	void *expected_mapping;
+	unsigned long kpfn;
+
+	expected_mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)stable_node |
+				    PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
+again:
+	kpfn = READ_ONCE(stable_node->kpfn);
+	page = pfn_to_page(kpfn);
+
+	/*
+	 * page is computed from kpfn, so on most architectures reading
+	 * page->mapping is naturally ordered after reading node->kpfn,
+	 * but on Alpha we need to be more careful.
+	 */
+	smp_rmb();
+
+	if (READ_ONCE(page->mapping) != expected_mapping)
+		goto stale;
+
+	/*
+	 * We cannot do anything with the page while its refcount is 0.
+	 * Usually 0 means free, or tail of a higher-order page: in which
+	 * case this node is no longer referenced, and should be freed;
+	 * however, it might mean that the page is under page_freeze_refs().
+	 * The __remove_mapping() case is easy, again the node is now stale;
+	 * but if page is swapcache in migrate_page_move_mapping(), it might
+	 * still be our page, in which case it's essential to keep the node.
+	 */
+	while (!get_page_unless_zero(page)) {
+		/*
+		 * Another check for page->mapping != expected_mapping would
+		 * work here too.  We have chosen the !PageSwapCache test to
+		 * optimize the common case, when the page is or is about to
+		 * be freed: PageSwapCache is cleared (under spin_lock_irq)
+		 * in the freeze_refs section of __remove_mapping(); but Anon
+		 * page->mapping reset to NULL later, in free_pages_prepare().
+		 */
+		if (!PageSwapCache(page))
+			goto stale;
+		cpu_relax();
+	}
+
+	if (READ_ONCE(page->mapping) != expected_mapping) {
+		put_page(page);
+		goto stale;
+	}
+
+	lock_page(page);
+	if (READ_ONCE(page->mapping) != expected_mapping) {
+		unlock_page(page);
+		put_page(page);
+		goto stale;
+	}
+	unlock_page(page);
+	return page;
+stale:
+	/*
+	 * We come here from above when page->mapping or !PageSwapCache
+	 * suggests that the node is stale; but it might be under migration.
+	 * We need smp_rmb(), matching the smp_wmb() in ksm_migrate_page(),
+	 * before checking whether node->kpfn has been changed.
+	 */
+	smp_rmb();
+	if (stable_node->kpfn != kpfn)
+		goto again;
+
+	remove_node_from_stable_tree(stable_node, unlink_rb, remove_tree_node);
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Removing rmap_item from stable or unstable tree.
+ * This function will clean the information from the stable/unstable tree.
+ */
+static inline void remove_rmap_item_from_tree(struct rmap_item *rmap_item)
+{
+	if (rmap_item->address & STABLE_FLAG) {
+		struct stable_node *stable_node;
+		struct node_vma *node_vma;
+		struct page *page;
+
+		node_vma = rmap_item->head;
+		stable_node = node_vma->head;
+		page = get_uksm_page(stable_node, 1, 1);
+		if (!page)
+			goto out;
+
+		/*
+		 * page lock is needed because it's racing with
+		 * try_to_unmap_ksm(), etc.
+		 */
+		lock_page(page);
+		hlist_del(&rmap_item->hlist);
+
+		if (hlist_empty(&node_vma->rmap_hlist)) {
+			hlist_del(&node_vma->hlist);
+			free_node_vma(node_vma);
+		}
+		unlock_page(page);
+
+		put_page(page);
+		if (hlist_empty(&stable_node->hlist)) {
+			/* do NOT call remove_node_from_stable_tree() here,
+			 * it's possible for a forked rmap_item not in
+			 * stable tree while the in-tree rmap_items were
+			 * deleted.
+			 */
+			uksm_pages_shared--;
+		} else
+			uksm_pages_sharing--;
+
+
+		uksm_drop_anon_vma(rmap_item);
+	} else if (rmap_item->address & UNSTABLE_FLAG) {
+		if (rmap_item->hash_round == uksm_hash_round) {
+
+			rb_erase(&rmap_item->node,
+				 &rmap_item->tree_node->sub_root);
+			if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&rmap_item->tree_node->sub_root)) {
+				rb_erase(&rmap_item->tree_node->node,
+					 &root_unstable_tree);
+
+				free_tree_node(rmap_item->tree_node);
+			} else
+				rmap_item->tree_node->count--;
+		}
+		uksm_pages_unshared--;
+	}
+
+	rmap_item->address &= PAGE_MASK;
+	rmap_item->hash_max = 0;
+
+out:
+	cond_resched();		/* we're called from many long loops */
+}
+
+static inline int slot_in_uksm(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	return list_empty(&slot->slot_list);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Test if the mm is exiting
+ */
+static inline bool uksm_test_exit(struct mm_struct *mm)
+{
+	return atomic_read(&mm->mm_users) == 0;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long vma_pool_size(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	return round_up(sizeof(struct rmap_list_entry) * slot->pages,
+			PAGE_SIZE) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+}
+
+#define CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(x, delta) (U64_MAX - (x) < (delta))
+
+/* must be done with sem locked */
+static int slot_pool_alloc(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_size;
+
+	if (slot->rmap_list_pool)
+		return 0;
+
+	pool_size = vma_pool_size(slot);
+	slot->rmap_list_pool = kcalloc(pool_size, sizeof(struct page *),
+				       GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!slot->rmap_list_pool)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	slot->pool_counts = kcalloc(pool_size, sizeof(unsigned int),
+				    GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!slot->pool_counts) {
+		kfree(slot->rmap_list_pool);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	slot->pool_size = pool_size;
+	BUG_ON(CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(uksm_pages_total, slot->pages));
+	slot->flags |= UKSM_SLOT_IN_UKSM;
+	uksm_pages_total += slot->pages;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called after vma is unlinked from its mm
+ */
+void uksm_remove_vma(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+
+	if (!vma->uksm_vma_slot)
+		return;
+
+	spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+	slot = vma->uksm_vma_slot;
+	if (!slot)
+		goto out;
+
+	if (slot_in_uksm(slot)) {
+		/**
+		 * This slot has been added by ksmd, so move to the del list
+		 * waiting ksmd to free it.
+		 */
+		list_add_tail(&slot->slot_list, &vma_slot_del);
+	} else {
+		/**
+		 * It's still on new list. It's ok to free slot directly.
+		 */
+		list_del(&slot->slot_list);
+		free_vma_slot(slot);
+	}
+out:
+	vma->uksm_vma_slot = NULL;
+	spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Need to do two things:
+ * 1. check if slot was moved to del list
+ * 2. make sure the mmap_sem is manipulated under valid vma.
+ *
+ * My concern here is that in some cases, this may make
+ * vma_slot_list_lock() waiters to serialized further by some
+ * sem->wait_lock, can this really be expensive?
+ *
+ *
+ * @return
+ * 0: if successfully locked mmap_sem
+ * -ENOENT: this slot was moved to del list
+ * -EBUSY: vma lock failed
+ */
+static int try_down_read_slot_mmap_sem(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
+	struct mm_struct *mm;
+	struct rw_semaphore *sem;
+
+	spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+
+	/* the slot_list was removed and inited from new list, when it enters
+	 * uksm_list. If now it's not empty, then it must be moved to del list
+	 */
+	if (!slot_in_uksm(slot)) {
+		spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+		return -ENOENT;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(slot->pages != vma_pages(slot->vma));
+	/* Ok, vma still valid */
+	vma = slot->vma;
+	mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	sem = &mm->mmap_lock;
+
+	if (uksm_test_exit(mm)) {
+		spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+		return -ENOENT;
+	}
+
+	if (down_read_trylock(sem)) {
+		spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+		if (slot_pool_alloc(slot)) {
+			uksm_remove_vma(vma);
+			up_read(sem);
+			return -ENOENT;
+		}
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+	return -EBUSY;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long
+vma_page_address(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	pgoff_t pgoff = page->index;
+	unsigned long address;
+
+	address = vma->vm_start + ((pgoff - vma->vm_pgoff) << PAGE_SHIFT);
+	if (unlikely(address < vma->vm_start || address >= vma->vm_end)) {
+		/* page should be within @vma mapping range */
+		return -EFAULT;
+	}
+	return address;
+}
+
+
+/* return 0 on success with the item's mmap_sem locked */
+static inline int get_mergeable_page_lock_mmap(struct rmap_item *item)
+{
+	struct mm_struct *mm;
+	struct vma_slot *slot = item->slot;
+	int err = -EINVAL;
+
+	struct page *page;
+
+	/*
+	 * try_down_read_slot_mmap_sem() returns non-zero if the slot
+	 * has been removed by uksm_remove_vma().
+	 */
+	if (try_down_read_slot_mmap_sem(slot))
+		return -EBUSY;
+
+	mm = slot->vma->vm_mm;
+
+	if (uksm_test_exit(mm))
+		goto failout_up;
+
+	page = item->page;
+	rcu_read_lock();
+	if (!get_page_unless_zero(page)) {
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+		goto failout_up;
+	}
+
+	/* No need to consider huge page here. */
+	if (item->slot->vma->anon_vma != page_anon_vma(page) ||
+	    vma_page_address(page, item->slot->vma) != get_rmap_addr(item)) {
+		/*
+		 * TODO:
+		 * should we release this item becase of its stale page
+		 * mapping?
+		 */
+		put_page(page);
+		rcu_read_unlock();
+		goto failout_up;
+	}
+	rcu_read_unlock();
+	return 0;
+
+failout_up:
+	mmap_read_unlock(mm);
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * What kind of VMA is considered ?
+ */
+static inline int vma_can_enter(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	return uksm_flags_can_scan(vma->vm_flags);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Called whenever a fresh new vma is created A new vma_slot.
+ * is created and inserted into a global list Must be called.
+ * after vma is inserted to its mm.
+ */
+void uksm_vma_add_new(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+
+	if (!vma_can_enter(vma)) {
+		vma->uksm_vma_slot = NULL;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	slot = alloc_vma_slot();
+	if (!slot) {
+		vma->uksm_vma_slot = NULL;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	vma->uksm_vma_slot = slot;
+	vma->vm_flags |= VM_MERGEABLE;
+	slot->vma = vma;
+	slot->mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	slot->ctime_j = jiffies;
+	slot->pages = vma_pages(vma);
+	spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+	list_add_tail(&slot->slot_list, &vma_slot_new);
+	spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+}
+
+/*   32/3 < they < 32/2 */
+#define shiftl	8
+#define shiftr	12
+
+#define HASH_FROM_TO(from, to)			\
+for (index = from; index < to; index++) {	\
+	pos = random_nums[index];		\
+	hash += key[pos];			\
+	hash += (hash << shiftl);		\
+	hash ^= (hash >> shiftr);		\
+}
+
+
+#define HASH_FROM_DOWN_TO(from, to)		\
+for (index = from - 1; index >= to; index--) {	\
+	hash ^= (hash >> shiftr);		\
+	hash ^= (hash >> (shiftr*2));		\
+	hash -= (hash << shiftl);		\
+	hash += (hash << (shiftl*2));		\
+	pos = random_nums[index];		\
+	hash -= key[pos];			\
+}
+
+/*
+ * The main random sample hash function.
+ */
+static u32 random_sample_hash(void *addr, u32 hash_strength)
+{
+	u32 hash = 0xdeadbeef;
+	int index, pos, loop = hash_strength;
+	u32 *key = (u32 *)addr;
+
+	if (loop > HASH_STRENGTH_FULL)
+		loop = HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+
+	HASH_FROM_TO(0, loop);
+
+	if (hash_strength > HASH_STRENGTH_FULL) {
+		loop = hash_strength - HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+		HASH_FROM_TO(0, loop);
+	}
+
+	return hash;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * It's used when hash strength is adjusted
+ *
+ * @addr The page's virtual address
+ * @from The original hash strength
+ * @to   The hash strength changed to
+ * @hash The hash value generated with "from" hash value
+ *
+ * return the hash value
+ */
+static u32 delta_hash(void *addr, int from, int to, u32 hash)
+{
+	u32 *key = (u32 *)addr;
+	int index, pos; /* make sure they are int type */
+
+	if (to > from) {
+		if (from >= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL) {
+			from -= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+			to -= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+			HASH_FROM_TO(from, to);
+		} else if (to <= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL) {
+			HASH_FROM_TO(from, to);
+		} else {
+			HASH_FROM_TO(from, HASH_STRENGTH_FULL);
+			HASH_FROM_TO(0, to - HASH_STRENGTH_FULL);
+		}
+	} else {
+		if (from <= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL) {
+			HASH_FROM_DOWN_TO(from, to);
+		} else if (to >= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL) {
+			from -= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+			to -= HASH_STRENGTH_FULL;
+			HASH_FROM_DOWN_TO(from, to);
+		} else {
+			HASH_FROM_DOWN_TO(from - HASH_STRENGTH_FULL, 0);
+			HASH_FROM_DOWN_TO(HASH_STRENGTH_FULL, to);
+		}
+	}
+
+	return hash;
+}
+
+/**
+ *
+ * Called when: rshash_pos or rshash_neg is about to overflow or a scan round
+ * has finished.
+ *
+ * return 0 if no page has been scanned since last call, 1 otherwise.
+ */
+static inline int encode_benefit(void)
+{
+	u64 scanned_delta, pos_delta, neg_delta;
+	unsigned long base = benefit.base;
+
+	scanned_delta = uksm_pages_scanned - uksm_pages_scanned_last;
+
+	if (!scanned_delta)
+		return 0;
+
+	scanned_delta >>= base;
+	pos_delta = rshash_pos >> base;
+	neg_delta = rshash_neg >> base;
+
+	if (CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(benefit.pos, pos_delta) ||
+	    CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(benefit.neg, neg_delta) ||
+	    CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(benefit.scanned, scanned_delta)) {
+		benefit.scanned >>= 1;
+		benefit.neg >>= 1;
+		benefit.pos >>= 1;
+		benefit.base++;
+		scanned_delta >>= 1;
+		pos_delta >>= 1;
+		neg_delta >>= 1;
+	}
+
+	benefit.pos += pos_delta;
+	benefit.neg += neg_delta;
+	benefit.scanned += scanned_delta;
+
+	BUG_ON(!benefit.scanned);
+
+	rshash_pos = rshash_neg = 0;
+	uksm_pages_scanned_last = uksm_pages_scanned;
+
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static inline void reset_benefit(void)
+{
+	benefit.pos = 0;
+	benefit.neg = 0;
+	benefit.base = 0;
+	benefit.scanned = 0;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_rshash_pos(unsigned long delta)
+{
+	if (CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(rshash_pos, delta))
+		encode_benefit();
+
+	rshash_pos += delta;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_rshash_neg(unsigned long delta)
+{
+	if (CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(rshash_neg, delta))
+		encode_benefit();
+
+	rshash_neg += delta;
+}
+
+
+static inline u32 page_hash(struct page *page, unsigned long hash_strength,
+			    int cost_accounting)
+{
+	u32 val;
+	unsigned long delta;
+
+	void *addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+
+	val = random_sample_hash(addr, hash_strength);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr);
+
+	if (cost_accounting) {
+		if (hash_strength < HASH_STRENGTH_FULL)
+			delta = HASH_STRENGTH_FULL - hash_strength;
+		else
+			delta = 0;
+
+		inc_rshash_pos(delta);
+	}
+
+	return val;
+}
+
+static int memcmp_pages_with_cost(struct page *page1, struct page *page2,
+			int cost_accounting)
+{
+	char *addr1, *addr2;
+	int ret;
+
+	addr1 = kmap_atomic(page1);
+	addr2 = kmap_atomic(page2);
+	ret = memcmp(addr1, addr2, PAGE_SIZE);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr2);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr1);
+
+	if (cost_accounting)
+		inc_rshash_neg(memcmp_cost);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static inline int pages_identical_with_cost(struct page *page1, struct page *page2)
+{
+	return !memcmp_pages_with_cost(page1, page2, 0);
+}
+
+static inline int is_page_full_zero(struct page *page)
+{
+	char *addr;
+	int ret;
+
+	addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+	ret = is_full_zero(addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static int write_protect_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page,
+			      pte_t *orig_pte, pte_t *old_pte)
+{
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	struct page_vma_mapped_walk pvmw = {
+		.page = page,
+		.vma = vma,
+	};
+       struct mmu_notifier_range range;
+	int swapped;
+	int err = -EFAULT;
+
+	pvmw.address = page_address_in_vma(page, vma);
+	if (pvmw.address == -EFAULT)
+		goto out;
+
+	BUG_ON(PageTransCompound(page));
+
+        mmu_notifier_range_init(&range, MMU_NOTIFY_CLEAR, 0, vma, mm, pvmw.address,
+                                pvmw.address + PAGE_SIZE);
+	mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(&range);
+
+	if (!page_vma_mapped_walk(&pvmw))
+		goto out_mn;
+	if (WARN_ONCE(!pvmw.pte, "Unexpected PMD mapping?"))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	if (old_pte)
+		*old_pte = *pvmw.pte;
+
+	if (pte_write(*pvmw.pte) || pte_dirty(*pvmw.pte) ||
+	    (pte_protnone(*pvmw.pte) && pte_savedwrite(*pvmw.pte)) || mm_tlb_flush_pending(mm)) {
+		pte_t entry;
+
+		swapped = PageSwapCache(page);
+		flush_cache_page(vma, pvmw.address, page_to_pfn(page));
+		/*
+		 * Ok this is tricky, when get_user_pages_fast() run it doesn't
+		 * take any lock, therefore the check that we are going to make
+		 * with the pagecount against the mapcount is racey and
+		 * O_DIRECT can happen right after the check.
+		 * So we clear the pte and flush the tlb before the check
+		 * this assure us that no O_DIRECT can happen after the check
+		 * or in the middle of the check.
+		 */
+		entry = ptep_clear_flush_notify(vma, pvmw.address, pvmw.pte);
+		/*
+		 * Check that no O_DIRECT or similar I/O is in progress on the
+		 * page
+		 */
+		if (page_mapcount(page) + 1 + swapped != page_count(page)) {
+			set_pte_at(mm, pvmw.address, pvmw.pte, entry);
+			goto out_unlock;
+		}
+		if (pte_dirty(entry))
+			set_page_dirty(page);
+
+		if (pte_protnone(entry))
+			entry = pte_mkclean(pte_clear_savedwrite(entry));
+		else
+			entry = pte_mkclean(pte_wrprotect(entry));
+
+		set_pte_at_notify(mm, pvmw.address, pvmw.pte, entry);
+	}
+	*orig_pte = *pvmw.pte;
+	err = 0;
+
+out_unlock:
+	page_vma_mapped_walk_done(&pvmw);
+out_mn:
+	mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(&range);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+#define MERGE_ERR_PGERR		1 /* the page is invalid cannot continue */
+#define MERGE_ERR_COLLI		2 /* there is a collision */
+#define MERGE_ERR_COLLI_MAX	3 /* collision at the max hash strength */
+#define MERGE_ERR_CHANGED	4 /* the page has changed since last hash */
+
+
+/**
+ * replace_page - replace page in vma by new ksm page
+ * @vma:      vma that holds the pte pointing to page
+ * @page:     the page we are replacing by kpage
+ * @kpage:    the ksm page we replace page by
+ * @orig_pte: the original value of the pte
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, MERGE_ERR_PGERR on failure.
+ */
+static int replace_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page,
+			struct page *kpage, pte_t orig_pte)
+{
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+       struct mmu_notifier_range range;
+	pgd_t *pgd;
+	p4d_t *p4d;
+	pud_t *pud;
+	pmd_t *pmd;
+	pte_t *ptep;
+	spinlock_t *ptl;
+	pte_t entry;
+
+	unsigned long addr;
+	int err = MERGE_ERR_PGERR;
+
+	addr = page_address_in_vma(page, vma);
+	if (addr == -EFAULT)
+		goto out;
+
+	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, addr);
+	if (!pgd_present(*pgd))
+		goto out;
+
+	p4d = p4d_offset(pgd, addr);
+	pud = pud_offset(p4d, addr);
+	if (!pud_present(*pud))
+		goto out;
+
+	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, addr);
+	BUG_ON(pmd_trans_huge(*pmd));
+	if (!pmd_present(*pmd))
+		goto out;
+
+        mmu_notifier_range_init(&range, MMU_NOTIFY_CLEAR, 0, vma, mm, addr,
+                                addr + PAGE_SIZE);
+	mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(&range);
+
+	ptep = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, addr, &ptl);
+	if (!pte_same(*ptep, orig_pte)) {
+		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
+		goto out_mn;
+	}
+
+	flush_cache_page(vma, addr, pte_pfn(*ptep));
+	ptep_clear_flush_notify(vma, addr, ptep);
+	entry = mk_pte(kpage, vma->vm_page_prot);
+
+	/* special treatment is needed for zero_page */
+	if ((page_to_pfn(kpage) == uksm_zero_pfn) ||
+				(page_to_pfn(kpage) == zero_pfn)) {
+		entry = pte_mkspecial(entry);
+		dec_mm_counter(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
+		inc_zone_page_state(page, NR_UKSM_ZERO_PAGES);
+	} else {
+		get_page(kpage);
+		page_add_anon_rmap(kpage, vma, addr, false);
+	}
+
+	set_pte_at_notify(mm, addr, ptep, entry);
+
+	page_remove_rmap(page, false);
+	if (!page_mapped(page))
+		try_to_free_swap(page);
+	put_page(page);
+
+	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
+	err = 0;
+out_mn:
+	mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(&range);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ *  Fully hash a page with HASH_STRENGTH_MAX return a non-zero hash value. The
+ *  zero hash value at HASH_STRENGTH_MAX is used to indicated that its
+ *  hash_max member has not been calculated.
+ *
+ * @page The page needs to be hashed
+ * @hash_old The hash value calculated with current hash strength
+ *
+ * return the new hash value calculated at HASH_STRENGTH_MAX
+ */
+static inline u32 page_hash_max(struct page *page, u32 hash_old)
+{
+	u32 hash_max = 0;
+	void *addr;
+
+	addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+	hash_max = delta_hash(addr, hash_strength,
+			      HASH_STRENGTH_MAX, hash_old);
+
+	kunmap_atomic(addr);
+
+	if (!hash_max)
+		hash_max = 1;
+
+	inc_rshash_neg(HASH_STRENGTH_MAX - hash_strength);
+	return hash_max;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We compare the hash again, to ensure that it is really a hash collision
+ * instead of being caused by page write.
+ */
+static inline int check_collision(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+				  u32 hash)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct page *page = rmap_item->page;
+
+	/* if this rmap_item has already been hash_maxed, then the collision
+	 * must appears in the second-level rbtree search. In this case we check
+	 * if its hash_max value has been changed. Otherwise, the collision
+	 * happens in the first-level rbtree search, so we check against it's
+	 * current hash value.
+	 */
+	if (rmap_item->hash_max) {
+		inc_rshash_neg(memcmp_cost);
+		inc_rshash_neg(HASH_STRENGTH_MAX - hash_strength);
+
+		if (rmap_item->hash_max == page_hash_max(page, hash))
+			err = MERGE_ERR_COLLI;
+		else
+			err = MERGE_ERR_CHANGED;
+	} else {
+		inc_rshash_neg(memcmp_cost + hash_strength);
+
+		if (page_hash(page, hash_strength, 0) == hash)
+			err = MERGE_ERR_COLLI;
+		else
+			err = MERGE_ERR_CHANGED;
+	}
+
+	return err;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Try to merge a rmap_item.page with a kpage in stable node. kpage must
+ * already be a ksm page.
+ *
+ * @return 0 if the pages were merged, -EFAULT otherwise.
+ */
+static int try_to_merge_with_uksm_page(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+				      struct page *kpage, u32 hash)
+{
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma = rmap_item->slot->vma;
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	pte_t orig_pte = __pte(0);
+	int err = MERGE_ERR_PGERR;
+	struct page *page;
+
+	if (uksm_test_exit(mm))
+		goto out;
+
+	page = rmap_item->page;
+
+	if (page == kpage) { /* ksm page forked */
+		err = 0;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * We need the page lock to read a stable PageSwapCache in
+	 * write_protect_page().  We use trylock_page() instead of
+	 * lock_page() because we don't want to wait here - we
+	 * prefer to continue scanning and merging different pages,
+	 * then come back to this page when it is unlocked.
+	 */
+	if (!trylock_page(page))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!PageAnon(page) || !PageKsm(kpage))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	if (PageTransCompound(page)) {
+		err = split_huge_page(page);
+		if (err)
+			goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If this anonymous page is mapped only here, its pte may need
+	 * to be write-protected.  If it's mapped elsewhere, all of its
+	 * ptes are necessarily already write-protected.  But in either
+	 * case, we need to lock and check page_count is not raised.
+	 */
+	if (write_protect_page(vma, page, &orig_pte, NULL) == 0) {
+		if (pages_identical_with_cost(page, kpage))
+			err = replace_page(vma, page, kpage, orig_pte);
+		else
+			err = check_collision(rmap_item, hash);
+	}
+
+	if ((vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) && kpage && !err) {
+		munlock_vma_page(page);
+		if (!PageMlocked(kpage)) {
+			unlock_page(page);
+			lock_page(kpage);
+			mlock_vma_page(kpage);
+			page = kpage;		/* for final unlock */
+		}
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	unlock_page(page);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+
+
+/**
+ * If two pages fail to merge in try_to_merge_two_pages, then we have a chance
+ * to restore a page mapping that has been changed in try_to_merge_two_pages.
+ *
+ * @return 0 on success.
+ */
+static int restore_uksm_page_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr,
+			     pte_t orig_pte, pte_t wprt_pte)
+{
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	pgd_t *pgd;
+	p4d_t *p4d;
+	pud_t *pud;
+	pmd_t *pmd;
+	pte_t *ptep;
+	spinlock_t *ptl;
+
+	int err = -EFAULT;
+
+	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, addr);
+	if (!pgd_present(*pgd))
+		goto out;
+
+	p4d = p4d_offset(pgd, addr);
+	pud = pud_offset(p4d, addr);
+	if (!pud_present(*pud))
+		goto out;
+
+	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, addr);
+	if (!pmd_present(*pmd))
+		goto out;
+
+	ptep = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, addr, &ptl);
+	if (!pte_same(*ptep, wprt_pte)) {
+		/* already copied, let it be */
+		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Good boy, still here. When we still get the ksm page, it does not
+	 * return to the free page pool, there is no way that a pte was changed
+	 * to other page and gets back to this page. And remind that ksm page
+	 * do not reuse in do_wp_page(). So it's safe to restore the original
+	 * pte.
+	 */
+	flush_cache_page(vma, addr, pte_pfn(*ptep));
+	ptep_clear_flush_notify(vma, addr, ptep);
+	set_pte_at_notify(mm, addr, ptep, orig_pte);
+
+	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
+	err = 0;
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/**
+ * try_to_merge_two_pages() - take two identical pages and prepare
+ * them to be merged into one page(rmap_item->page)
+ *
+ * @return 0 if we successfully merged two identical pages into
+ *         one ksm page. MERGE_ERR_COLLI if it's only a hash collision
+ *         search in rbtree. MERGE_ERR_CHANGED if rmap_item has been
+ *         changed since it's hashed. MERGE_ERR_PGERR otherwise.
+ *
+ */
+static int try_to_merge_two_pages(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+				  struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item,
+				  u32 hash)
+{
+	pte_t orig_pte1 = __pte(0), orig_pte2 = __pte(0);
+	pte_t wprt_pte1 = __pte(0), wprt_pte2 = __pte(0);
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma1 = rmap_item->slot->vma;
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma2 = tree_rmap_item->slot->vma;
+	struct page *page = rmap_item->page;
+	struct page *tree_page = tree_rmap_item->page;
+	int err = MERGE_ERR_PGERR;
+	struct address_space *saved_mapping;
+
+
+	if (rmap_item->page == tree_rmap_item->page)
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!trylock_page(page))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!PageAnon(page))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	if (PageTransCompound(page)) {
+		err = split_huge_page(page);
+		if (err)
+			goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	if (write_protect_page(vma1, page, &wprt_pte1, &orig_pte1) != 0) {
+		unlock_page(page);
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * While we hold page lock, upgrade page from
+	 * PageAnon+anon_vma to PageKsm+NULL stable_node:
+	 * stable_tree_insert() will update stable_node.
+	 */
+	saved_mapping = page->mapping;
+	set_page_stable_node(page, NULL);
+	mark_page_accessed(page);
+	if (!PageDirty(page))
+		SetPageDirty(page);
+
+	unlock_page(page);
+
+	if (!trylock_page(tree_page))
+		goto restore_out;
+
+	if (!PageAnon(tree_page)) {
+		unlock_page(tree_page);
+		goto restore_out;
+	}
+
+	if (PageTransCompound(tree_page)) {
+		err = split_huge_page(tree_page);
+		if (err) {
+			unlock_page(tree_page);
+			goto restore_out;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (write_protect_page(vma2, tree_page, &wprt_pte2, &orig_pte2) != 0) {
+		unlock_page(tree_page);
+		goto restore_out;
+	}
+
+	if (pages_identical_with_cost(page, tree_page)) {
+		err = replace_page(vma2, tree_page, page, wprt_pte2);
+		if (err) {
+			unlock_page(tree_page);
+			goto restore_out;
+		}
+
+		if ((vma2->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)) {
+			munlock_vma_page(tree_page);
+			if (!PageMlocked(page)) {
+				unlock_page(tree_page);
+				lock_page(page);
+				mlock_vma_page(page);
+				tree_page = page; /* for final unlock */
+			}
+		}
+
+		unlock_page(tree_page);
+
+		goto out; /* success */
+
+	} else {
+		if (tree_rmap_item->hash_max &&
+		    tree_rmap_item->hash_max == rmap_item->hash_max) {
+			err = MERGE_ERR_COLLI_MAX;
+		} else if (page_hash(page, hash_strength, 0) ==
+		    page_hash(tree_page, hash_strength, 0)) {
+			inc_rshash_neg(memcmp_cost + hash_strength * 2);
+			err = MERGE_ERR_COLLI;
+		} else {
+			err = MERGE_ERR_CHANGED;
+		}
+
+		unlock_page(tree_page);
+	}
+
+restore_out:
+	lock_page(page);
+	if (!restore_uksm_page_pte(vma1, get_rmap_addr(rmap_item),
+				  orig_pte1, wprt_pte1))
+		page->mapping = saved_mapping;
+
+out_unlock:
+	unlock_page(page);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline int hash_cmp(u32 new_val, u32 node_val)
+{
+	if (new_val > node_val)
+		return 1;
+	else if (new_val < node_val)
+		return -1;
+	else
+		return 0;
+}
+
+static inline u32 rmap_item_hash_max(struct rmap_item *item, u32 hash)
+{
+	u32 hash_max = item->hash_max;
+
+	if (!hash_max) {
+		hash_max = page_hash_max(item->page, hash);
+
+		item->hash_max = hash_max;
+	}
+
+	return hash_max;
+}
+
+
+
+/**
+ * stable_tree_search() - search the stable tree for a page
+ *
+ * @item:	the rmap_item we are comparing with
+ * @hash:	the hash value of this item->page already calculated
+ *
+ * @return	the page we have found, NULL otherwise. The page returned has
+ *			been gotten.
+ */
+static struct page *stable_tree_search(struct rmap_item *item, u32 hash)
+{
+	struct rb_node *node = root_stable_treep->rb_node;
+	struct tree_node *tree_node;
+	unsigned long hash_max;
+	struct page *page = item->page;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+
+	stable_node = page_stable_node(page);
+	if (stable_node) {
+		/* ksm page forked, that is
+		 * if (PageKsm(page) && !in_stable_tree(rmap_item))
+		 * it's actually gotten once outside.
+		 */
+		get_page(page);
+		return page;
+	}
+
+	while (node) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		tree_node = rb_entry(node, struct tree_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash, tree_node->hash);
+
+		if (cmp < 0)
+			node = node->rb_left;
+		else if (cmp > 0)
+			node = node->rb_right;
+		else
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (!node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (tree_node->count == 1) {
+		stable_node = rb_entry(tree_node->sub_root.rb_node,
+				       struct stable_node, node);
+		BUG_ON(!stable_node);
+
+		goto get_page_out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * ok, we have to search the second
+	 * level subtree, hash the page to a
+	 * full strength.
+	 */
+	node = tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+	BUG_ON(!node);
+	hash_max = rmap_item_hash_max(item, hash);
+
+	while (node) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		stable_node = rb_entry(node, struct stable_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash_max, stable_node->hash_max);
+
+		if (cmp < 0)
+			node = node->rb_left;
+		else if (cmp > 0)
+			node = node->rb_right;
+		else
+			goto get_page_out;
+	}
+
+	return NULL;
+
+get_page_out:
+	page = get_uksm_page(stable_node, 1, 1);
+	return page;
+}
+
+static int try_merge_rmap_item(struct rmap_item *item,
+			       struct page *kpage,
+			       struct page *tree_page)
+{
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma = item->slot->vma;
+	struct page_vma_mapped_walk pvmw = {
+		.page = kpage,
+		.vma = vma,
+	};
+
+	pvmw.address = get_rmap_addr(item);
+	if (!page_vma_mapped_walk(&pvmw))
+		return 0;
+
+	if (pte_write(*pvmw.pte)) {
+		/* has changed, abort! */
+		page_vma_mapped_walk_done(&pvmw);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	get_page(tree_page);
+	page_add_anon_rmap(tree_page, vma, pvmw.address, false);
+
+	flush_cache_page(vma, pvmw.address, page_to_pfn(kpage));
+	ptep_clear_flush_notify(vma, pvmw.address, pvmw.pte);
+	set_pte_at_notify(vma->vm_mm, pvmw.address, pvmw.pte,
+			  mk_pte(tree_page, vma->vm_page_prot));
+
+	page_remove_rmap(kpage, false);
+	put_page(kpage);
+
+	page_vma_mapped_walk_done(&pvmw);
+
+	return 1;
+}
+
+/**
+ * try_to_merge_with_stable_page() - when two rmap_items need to be inserted
+ * into stable tree, the page was found to be identical to a stable ksm page,
+ * this is the last chance we can merge them into one.
+ *
+ * @item1:	the rmap_item holding the page which we wanted to insert
+ *		into stable tree.
+ * @item2:	the other rmap_item we found when unstable tree search
+ * @oldpage:	the page currently mapped by the two rmap_items
+ * @tree_page:	the page we found identical in stable tree node
+ * @success1:	return if item1 is successfully merged
+ * @success2:	return if item2 is successfully merged
+ */
+static void try_merge_with_stable(struct rmap_item *item1,
+				  struct rmap_item *item2,
+				  struct page **kpage,
+				  struct page *tree_page,
+				  int *success1, int *success2)
+{
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma1 = item1->slot->vma;
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma2 = item2->slot->vma;
+	*success1 = 0;
+	*success2 = 0;
+
+	if (unlikely(*kpage == tree_page)) {
+		/* I don't think this can really happen */
+		pr_warn("UKSM: unexpected condition detected in "
+			"%s -- *kpage == tree_page !\n", __func__);
+		*success1 = 1;
+		*success2 = 1;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	if (!PageAnon(*kpage) || !PageKsm(*kpage))
+		goto failed;
+
+	if (!trylock_page(tree_page))
+		goto failed;
+
+	/* If the oldpage is still ksm and still pointed
+	 * to in the right place, and still write protected,
+	 * we are confident it's not changed, no need to
+	 * memcmp anymore.
+	 * be ware, we cannot take nested pte locks,
+	 * deadlock risk.
+	 */
+	if (!try_merge_rmap_item(item1, *kpage, tree_page))
+		goto unlock_failed;
+
+	/* ok, then vma2, remind that pte1 already set */
+	if (!try_merge_rmap_item(item2, *kpage, tree_page))
+		goto success_1;
+
+	*success2 = 1;
+success_1:
+	*success1 = 1;
+
+
+	if ((*success1 && vma1->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) ||
+	    (*success2 && vma2->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)) {
+		munlock_vma_page(*kpage);
+		if (!PageMlocked(tree_page))
+			mlock_vma_page(tree_page);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * We do not need oldpage any more in the caller, so can break the lock
+	 * now.
+	 */
+	unlock_page(*kpage);
+	*kpage = tree_page; /* Get unlocked outside. */
+	return;
+
+unlock_failed:
+	unlock_page(tree_page);
+failed:
+	return;
+}
+
+static inline void stable_node_hash_max(struct stable_node *node,
+					 struct page *page, u32 hash)
+{
+	u32 hash_max = node->hash_max;
+
+	if (!hash_max) {
+		hash_max = page_hash_max(page, hash);
+		node->hash_max = hash_max;
+	}
+}
+
+static inline
+struct stable_node *new_stable_node(struct tree_node *tree_node,
+				    struct page *kpage, u32 hash_max)
+{
+	struct stable_node *new_stable_node;
+
+	new_stable_node = alloc_stable_node();
+	if (!new_stable_node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	new_stable_node->kpfn = page_to_pfn(kpage);
+	new_stable_node->hash_max = hash_max;
+	new_stable_node->tree_node = tree_node;
+	set_page_stable_node(kpage, new_stable_node);
+
+	return new_stable_node;
+}
+
+static inline
+struct stable_node *first_level_insert(struct tree_node *tree_node,
+				       struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+				       struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item,
+				       struct page **kpage, u32 hash,
+				       int *success1, int *success2)
+{
+	int cmp;
+	struct page *tree_page;
+	u32 hash_max = 0;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node, *new_snode;
+	struct rb_node *parent = NULL, **new;
+
+	/* this tree node contains no sub-tree yet */
+	stable_node = rb_entry(tree_node->sub_root.rb_node,
+			       struct stable_node, node);
+
+	tree_page = get_uksm_page(stable_node, 1, 0);
+	if (tree_page) {
+		cmp = memcmp_pages_with_cost(*kpage, tree_page, 1);
+		if (!cmp) {
+			try_merge_with_stable(rmap_item, tree_rmap_item, kpage,
+					      tree_page, success1, success2);
+			put_page(tree_page);
+			if (!*success1 && !*success2)
+				goto failed;
+
+			return stable_node;
+
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * collision in first level try to create a subtree.
+			 * A new node need to be created.
+			 */
+			put_page(tree_page);
+
+			stable_node_hash_max(stable_node, tree_page,
+					     tree_node->hash);
+			hash_max = rmap_item_hash_max(rmap_item, hash);
+			cmp = hash_cmp(hash_max, stable_node->hash_max);
+
+			parent = &stable_node->node;
+			if (cmp < 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_left;
+			else if (cmp > 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_right;
+			else
+				goto failed;
+		}
+
+	} else {
+		/* the only stable_node deleted, we reuse its tree_node.
+		 */
+		parent = NULL;
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+	}
+
+	new_snode = new_stable_node(tree_node, *kpage, hash_max);
+	if (!new_snode)
+		goto failed;
+
+	rb_link_node(&new_snode->node, parent, new);
+	rb_insert_color(&new_snode->node, &tree_node->sub_root);
+	tree_node->count++;
+	*success1 = *success2 = 1;
+
+	return new_snode;
+
+failed:
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline
+struct stable_node *stable_subtree_insert(struct tree_node *tree_node,
+					  struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+					  struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item,
+					  struct page **kpage, u32 hash,
+					  int *success1, int *success2)
+{
+	struct page *tree_page;
+	u32 hash_max;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node, *new_snode;
+	struct rb_node *parent, **new;
+
+research:
+	parent = NULL;
+	new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+	BUG_ON(!*new);
+	hash_max = rmap_item_hash_max(rmap_item, hash);
+	while (*new) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		stable_node = rb_entry(*new, struct stable_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash_max, stable_node->hash_max);
+
+		if (cmp < 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_left;
+		} else if (cmp > 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_right;
+		} else {
+			tree_page = get_uksm_page(stable_node, 1, 0);
+			if (tree_page) {
+				cmp = memcmp_pages_with_cost(*kpage, tree_page, 1);
+				if (!cmp) {
+					try_merge_with_stable(rmap_item,
+						tree_rmap_item, kpage,
+						tree_page, success1, success2);
+
+					put_page(tree_page);
+					if (!*success1 && !*success2)
+						goto failed;
+					/*
+					 * successfully merged with a stable
+					 * node
+					 */
+					return stable_node;
+				} else {
+					put_page(tree_page);
+					goto failed;
+				}
+			} else {
+				/*
+				 * stable node may be deleted,
+				 * and subtree maybe
+				 * restructed, cannot
+				 * continue, research it.
+				 */
+				if (tree_node->count) {
+					goto research;
+				} else {
+					/* reuse the tree node*/
+					parent = NULL;
+					new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	new_snode = new_stable_node(tree_node, *kpage, hash_max);
+	if (!new_snode)
+		goto failed;
+
+	rb_link_node(&new_snode->node, parent, new);
+	rb_insert_color(&new_snode->node, &tree_node->sub_root);
+	tree_node->count++;
+	*success1 = *success2 = 1;
+
+	return new_snode;
+
+failed:
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * stable_tree_insert() - try to insert a merged page in unstable tree to
+ * the stable tree
+ *
+ * @kpage:		the page need to be inserted
+ * @hash:		the current hash of this page
+ * @rmap_item:		the rmap_item being scanned
+ * @tree_rmap_item:	the rmap_item found on unstable tree
+ * @success1:		return if rmap_item is merged
+ * @success2:		return if tree_rmap_item is merged
+ *
+ * @return		the stable_node on stable tree if at least one
+ *			rmap_item is inserted into stable tree, NULL
+ *			otherwise.
+ */
+static struct stable_node *
+stable_tree_insert(struct page **kpage, u32 hash,
+		   struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+		   struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item,
+		   int *success1, int *success2)
+{
+	struct rb_node **new = &root_stable_treep->rb_node;
+	struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+	struct tree_node *tree_node;
+	u32 hash_max = 0;
+
+	*success1 = *success2 = 0;
+
+	while (*new) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		tree_node = rb_entry(*new, struct tree_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash, tree_node->hash);
+
+		if (cmp < 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_left;
+		} else if (cmp > 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_right;
+		} else
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (*new) {
+		if (tree_node->count == 1) {
+			stable_node = first_level_insert(tree_node, rmap_item,
+						tree_rmap_item, kpage,
+						hash, success1, success2);
+		} else {
+			stable_node = stable_subtree_insert(tree_node,
+					rmap_item, tree_rmap_item, kpage,
+					hash, success1, success2);
+		}
+	} else {
+
+		/* no tree node found */
+		tree_node = alloc_tree_node(stable_tree_node_listp);
+		if (!tree_node) {
+			stable_node = NULL;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		stable_node = new_stable_node(tree_node, *kpage, hash_max);
+		if (!stable_node) {
+			free_tree_node(tree_node);
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		tree_node->hash = hash;
+		rb_link_node(&tree_node->node, parent, new);
+		rb_insert_color(&tree_node->node, root_stable_treep);
+		parent = NULL;
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+
+		rb_link_node(&stable_node->node, parent, new);
+		rb_insert_color(&stable_node->node, &tree_node->sub_root);
+		tree_node->count++;
+		*success1 = *success2 = 1;
+	}
+
+out:
+	return stable_node;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * get_tree_rmap_item_page() - try to get the page and lock the mmap_sem
+ *
+ * @return	0 on success, -EBUSY if unable to lock the mmap_sem,
+ *		-EINVAL if the page mapping has been changed.
+ */
+static inline int get_tree_rmap_item_page(struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = get_mergeable_page_lock_mmap(tree_rmap_item);
+
+	if (err == -EINVAL) {
+		/* its page map has been changed, remove it */
+		remove_rmap_item_from_tree(tree_rmap_item);
+	}
+
+	/* The page is gotten and mmap_sem is locked now. */
+	return err;
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * unstable_tree_search_insert() - search an unstable tree rmap_item with the
+ * same hash value. Get its page and trylock the mmap_sem
+ */
+static inline
+struct rmap_item *unstable_tree_search_insert(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+					      u32 hash)
+
+{
+	struct rb_node **new = &root_unstable_tree.rb_node;
+	struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+	struct tree_node *tree_node;
+	u32 hash_max;
+	struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item;
+
+	while (*new) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		tree_node = rb_entry(*new, struct tree_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash, tree_node->hash);
+
+		if (cmp < 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_left;
+		} else if (cmp > 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_right;
+		} else
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (*new) {
+		/* got the tree_node */
+		if (tree_node->count == 1) {
+			tree_rmap_item = rb_entry(tree_node->sub_root.rb_node,
+						  struct rmap_item, node);
+			BUG_ON(!tree_rmap_item);
+
+			goto get_page_out;
+		}
+
+		/* well, search the collision subtree */
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+		BUG_ON(!*new);
+		hash_max = rmap_item_hash_max(rmap_item, hash);
+
+		while (*new) {
+			int cmp;
+
+			tree_rmap_item = rb_entry(*new, struct rmap_item,
+						  node);
+
+			cmp = hash_cmp(hash_max, tree_rmap_item->hash_max);
+			parent = *new;
+			if (cmp < 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_left;
+			else if (cmp > 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_right;
+			else
+				goto get_page_out;
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* alloc a new tree_node */
+		tree_node = alloc_tree_node(&unstable_tree_node_list);
+		if (!tree_node)
+			return NULL;
+
+		tree_node->hash = hash;
+		rb_link_node(&tree_node->node, parent, new);
+		rb_insert_color(&tree_node->node, &root_unstable_tree);
+		parent = NULL;
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+	}
+
+	/* did not found even in sub-tree */
+	rmap_item->tree_node = tree_node;
+	rmap_item->address |= UNSTABLE_FLAG;
+	rmap_item->hash_round = uksm_hash_round;
+	rb_link_node(&rmap_item->node, parent, new);
+	rb_insert_color(&rmap_item->node, &tree_node->sub_root);
+
+	uksm_pages_unshared++;
+	return NULL;
+
+get_page_out:
+	if (tree_rmap_item->page == rmap_item->page)
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (get_tree_rmap_item_page(tree_rmap_item))
+		return NULL;
+
+	return tree_rmap_item;
+}
+
+static void hold_anon_vma(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+			  struct anon_vma *anon_vma)
+{
+	rmap_item->anon_vma = anon_vma;
+	get_anon_vma(anon_vma);
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * stable_tree_append() - append a rmap_item to a stable node. Deduplication
+ * ratio statistics is done in this function.
+ *
+ */
+static void stable_tree_append(struct rmap_item *rmap_item,
+			       struct stable_node *stable_node, int logdedup)
+{
+	struct node_vma *node_vma = NULL, *new_node_vma, *node_vma_cont = NULL;
+	unsigned long key = (unsigned long)rmap_item->slot;
+	unsigned long factor = rmap_item->slot->rung->step;
+
+	BUG_ON(!stable_node);
+	rmap_item->address |= STABLE_FLAG;
+
+	if (hlist_empty(&stable_node->hlist)) {
+		uksm_pages_shared++;
+		goto node_vma_new;
+	} else {
+		uksm_pages_sharing++;
+	}
+
+	hlist_for_each_entry(node_vma, &stable_node->hlist, hlist) {
+		if (node_vma->key >= key)
+			break;
+
+		if (logdedup) {
+			node_vma->slot->pages_bemerged += factor;
+			if (list_empty(&node_vma->slot->dedup_list))
+				list_add(&node_vma->slot->dedup_list,
+					 &vma_slot_dedup);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (node_vma) {
+		if (node_vma->key == key) {
+			node_vma_cont = hlist_entry_safe(node_vma->hlist.next, struct node_vma, hlist);
+			goto node_vma_ok;
+		} else if (node_vma->key > key) {
+			node_vma_cont = node_vma;
+		}
+	}
+
+node_vma_new:
+	/* no same vma already in node, alloc a new node_vma */
+	new_node_vma = alloc_node_vma();
+	BUG_ON(!new_node_vma);
+	new_node_vma->head = stable_node;
+	new_node_vma->slot = rmap_item->slot;
+
+	if (!node_vma) {
+		hlist_add_head(&new_node_vma->hlist, &stable_node->hlist);
+	} else if (node_vma->key != key) {
+		if (node_vma->key < key)
+			hlist_add_behind(&new_node_vma->hlist, &node_vma->hlist);
+		else {
+			hlist_add_before(&new_node_vma->hlist,
+					 &node_vma->hlist);
+		}
+
+	}
+	node_vma = new_node_vma;
+
+node_vma_ok: /* ok, ready to add to the list */
+	rmap_item->head = node_vma;
+	hlist_add_head(&rmap_item->hlist, &node_vma->rmap_hlist);
+	hold_anon_vma(rmap_item, rmap_item->slot->vma->anon_vma);
+	if (logdedup) {
+		rmap_item->slot->pages_merged++;
+		if (node_vma_cont) {
+			node_vma = node_vma_cont;
+			hlist_for_each_entry_continue(node_vma, hlist) {
+				node_vma->slot->pages_bemerged += factor;
+				if (list_empty(&node_vma->slot->dedup_list))
+					list_add(&node_vma->slot->dedup_list,
+						 &vma_slot_dedup);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * We use break_ksm to break COW on a ksm page: it's a stripped down
+ *
+ *	if (get_user_pages(addr, 1, 1, 1, &page, NULL) == 1)
+ *		put_page(page);
+ *
+ * but taking great care only to touch a ksm page, in a VM_MERGEABLE vma,
+ * in case the application has unmapped and remapped mm,addr meanwhile.
+ * Could a ksm page appear anywhere else?  Actually yes, in a VM_PFNMAP
+ * mmap of /dev/mem or /dev/kmem, where we would not want to touch it.
+ */
+static int break_ksm(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr)
+{
+	struct page *page;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	do {
+		cond_resched();
+		page = follow_page(vma, addr, FOLL_GET | FOLL_MIGRATION | FOLL_REMOTE);
+		if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(page))
+			break;
+		if (PageKsm(page)) {
+			ret = handle_mm_fault(vma, addr,
+					      FAULT_FLAG_WRITE | FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE,
+                                             NULL);
+		} else
+			ret = VM_FAULT_WRITE;
+		put_page(page);
+	} while (!(ret & (VM_FAULT_WRITE | VM_FAULT_SIGBUS | VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV | VM_FAULT_OOM)));
+	/*
+	 * We must loop because handle_mm_fault() may back out if there's
+	 * any difficulty e.g. if pte accessed bit gets updated concurrently.
+	 *
+	 * VM_FAULT_WRITE is what we have been hoping for: it indicates that
+	 * COW has been broken, even if the vma does not permit VM_WRITE;
+	 * but note that a concurrent fault might break PageKsm for us.
+	 *
+	 * VM_FAULT_SIGBUS could occur if we race with truncation of the
+	 * backing file, which also invalidates anonymous pages: that's
+	 * okay, that truncation will have unmapped the PageKsm for us.
+	 *
+	 * VM_FAULT_OOM: at the time of writing (late July 2009), setting
+	 * aside mem_cgroup limits, VM_FAULT_OOM would only be set if the
+	 * current task has TIF_MEMDIE set, and will be OOM killed on return
+	 * to user; and ksmd, having no mm, would never be chosen for that.
+	 *
+	 * But if the mm is in a limited mem_cgroup, then the fault may fail
+	 * with VM_FAULT_OOM even if the current task is not TIF_MEMDIE; and
+	 * even ksmd can fail in this way - though it's usually breaking ksm
+	 * just to undo a merge it made a moment before, so unlikely to oom.
+	 *
+	 * That's a pity: we might therefore have more kernel pages allocated
+	 * than we're counting as nodes in the stable tree; but uksm_do_scan
+	 * will retry to break_cow on each pass, so should recover the page
+	 * in due course.  The important thing is to not let VM_MERGEABLE
+	 * be cleared while any such pages might remain in the area.
+	 */
+	return (ret & VM_FAULT_OOM) ? -ENOMEM : 0;
+}
+
+static void break_cow(struct rmap_item *rmap_item)
+{
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma = rmap_item->slot->vma;
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	unsigned long addr = get_rmap_addr(rmap_item);
+
+	if (uksm_test_exit(mm))
+		goto out;
+
+	break_ksm(vma, addr);
+out:
+	return;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Though it's very tempting to unmerge in_stable_tree(rmap_item)s rather
+ * than check every pte of a given vma, the locking doesn't quite work for
+ * that - an rmap_item is assigned to the stable tree after inserting ksm
+ * page and upping mmap_sem.  Nor does it fit with the way we skip dup'ing
+ * rmap_items from parent to child at fork time (so as not to waste time
+ * if exit comes before the next scan reaches it).
+ *
+ * Similarly, although we'd like to remove rmap_items (so updating counts
+ * and freeing memory) when unmerging an area, it's easier to leave that
+ * to the next pass of ksmd - consider, for example, how ksmd might be
+ * in cmp_and_merge_page on one of the rmap_items we would be removing.
+ */
+inline int unmerge_uksm_pages(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+		      unsigned long start, unsigned long end)
+{
+	unsigned long addr;
+	int err = 0;
+
+	for (addr = start; addr < end && !err; addr += PAGE_SIZE) {
+		if (uksm_test_exit(vma->vm_mm))
+			break;
+		if (signal_pending(current))
+			err = -ERESTARTSYS;
+		else
+			err = break_ksm(vma, addr);
+	}
+	return err;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_uksm_pages_scanned(void)
+{
+	u64 delta;
+
+
+	if (uksm_pages_scanned == U64_MAX) {
+		encode_benefit();
+
+		delta = uksm_pages_scanned >> pages_scanned_base;
+
+		if (CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(pages_scanned_stored, delta)) {
+			pages_scanned_stored >>= 1;
+			delta >>= 1;
+			pages_scanned_base++;
+		}
+
+		pages_scanned_stored += delta;
+
+		uksm_pages_scanned = uksm_pages_scanned_last = 0;
+	}
+
+	uksm_pages_scanned++;
+}
+
+static inline int find_zero_page_hash(int strength, u32 hash)
+{
+	return (zero_hash_table[strength] == hash);
+}
+
+static
+int cmp_and_merge_zero_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page)
+{
+	struct page *zero_page = empty_uksm_zero_page;
+	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	pte_t orig_pte = __pte(0);
+	int err = -EFAULT;
+
+	if (uksm_test_exit(mm))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!trylock_page(page))
+		goto out;
+
+	if (!PageAnon(page))
+		goto out_unlock;
+
+	if (PageTransCompound(page)) {
+		err = split_huge_page(page);
+		if (err)
+			goto out_unlock;
+	}
+
+	if (write_protect_page(vma, page, &orig_pte, 0) == 0) {
+		if (is_page_full_zero(page))
+			err = replace_page(vma, page, zero_page, orig_pte);
+	}
+
+out_unlock:
+	unlock_page(page);
+out:
+	return err;
+}
+
+/*
+ * cmp_and_merge_page() - first see if page can be merged into the stable
+ * tree; if not, compare hash to previous and if it's the same, see if page
+ * can be inserted into the unstable tree, or merged with a page already there
+ * and both transferred to the stable tree.
+ *
+ * @page: the page that we are searching identical page to.
+ * @rmap_item: the reverse mapping into the virtual address of this page
+ */
+static void cmp_and_merge_page(struct rmap_item *rmap_item, u32 hash)
+{
+	struct rmap_item *tree_rmap_item;
+	struct page *page;
+	struct page *kpage = NULL;
+	u32 hash_max;
+	int err;
+	unsigned int success1, success2;
+	struct stable_node *snode;
+	int cmp;
+	struct rb_node *parent = NULL, **new;
+
+	remove_rmap_item_from_tree(rmap_item);
+	page = rmap_item->page;
+
+	/* We first start with searching the page inside the stable tree */
+	kpage = stable_tree_search(rmap_item, hash);
+	if (kpage) {
+		err = try_to_merge_with_uksm_page(rmap_item, kpage,
+						 hash);
+		if (!err) {
+			/*
+			 * The page was successfully merged, add
+			 * its rmap_item to the stable tree.
+			 * page lock is needed because it's
+			 * racing with try_to_unmap_ksm(), etc.
+			 */
+			lock_page(kpage);
+			snode = page_stable_node(kpage);
+			stable_tree_append(rmap_item, snode, 1);
+			unlock_page(kpage);
+			put_page(kpage);
+			return; /* success */
+		}
+		put_page(kpage);
+
+		/*
+		 * if it's a collision and it has been search in sub-rbtree
+		 * (hash_max != 0), we want to abort, because if it is
+		 * successfully merged in unstable tree, the collision trends to
+		 * happen again.
+		 */
+		if (err == MERGE_ERR_COLLI && rmap_item->hash_max)
+			return;
+	}
+
+	tree_rmap_item =
+		unstable_tree_search_insert(rmap_item, hash);
+	if (tree_rmap_item) {
+		err = try_to_merge_two_pages(rmap_item, tree_rmap_item, hash);
+		/*
+		 * As soon as we merge this page, we want to remove the
+		 * rmap_item of the page we have merged with from the unstable
+		 * tree, and insert it instead as new node in the stable tree.
+		 */
+		if (!err) {
+			kpage = page;
+			remove_rmap_item_from_tree(tree_rmap_item);
+			lock_page(kpage);
+			snode = stable_tree_insert(&kpage, hash,
+						   rmap_item, tree_rmap_item,
+						   &success1, &success2);
+
+			/*
+			 * Do not log dedup for tree item, it's not counted as
+			 * scanned in this round.
+			 */
+			if (success2)
+				stable_tree_append(tree_rmap_item, snode, 0);
+
+			/*
+			 * The order of these two stable append is important:
+			 * we are scanning rmap_item.
+			 */
+			if (success1)
+				stable_tree_append(rmap_item, snode, 1);
+
+			/*
+			 * The original kpage may be unlocked inside
+			 * stable_tree_insert() already. This page
+			 * should be unlocked before doing
+			 * break_cow().
+			 */
+			unlock_page(kpage);
+
+			if (!success1)
+				break_cow(rmap_item);
+
+			if (!success2)
+				break_cow(tree_rmap_item);
+
+		} else if (err == MERGE_ERR_COLLI) {
+			BUG_ON(tree_rmap_item->tree_node->count > 1);
+
+			rmap_item_hash_max(tree_rmap_item,
+					   tree_rmap_item->tree_node->hash);
+
+			hash_max = rmap_item_hash_max(rmap_item, hash);
+			cmp = hash_cmp(hash_max, tree_rmap_item->hash_max);
+			parent = &tree_rmap_item->node;
+			if (cmp < 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_left;
+			else if (cmp > 0)
+				new = &parent->rb_right;
+			else
+				goto put_up_out;
+
+			rmap_item->tree_node = tree_rmap_item->tree_node;
+			rmap_item->address |= UNSTABLE_FLAG;
+			rmap_item->hash_round = uksm_hash_round;
+			rb_link_node(&rmap_item->node, parent, new);
+			rb_insert_color(&rmap_item->node,
+					&tree_rmap_item->tree_node->sub_root);
+			rmap_item->tree_node->count++;
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 * either one of the page has changed or they collide
+			 * at the max hash, we consider them as ill items.
+			 */
+			remove_rmap_item_from_tree(tree_rmap_item);
+		}
+put_up_out:
+		put_page(tree_rmap_item->page);
+		mmap_read_unlock(tree_rmap_item->slot->vma->vm_mm);
+	}
+}
+
+
+
+
+static inline unsigned long get_pool_index(struct vma_slot *slot,
+					   unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+
+	pool_index = (sizeof(struct rmap_list_entry *) * index) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+	if (pool_index >= slot->pool_size)
+		BUG();
+	return pool_index;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long index_page_offset(unsigned long index)
+{
+	return offset_in_page(sizeof(struct rmap_list_entry *) * index);
+}
+
+static inline
+struct rmap_list_entry *get_rmap_list_entry(struct vma_slot *slot,
+					    unsigned long index, int need_alloc)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+	struct page *page;
+	void *addr;
+
+
+	pool_index = get_pool_index(slot, index);
+	if (!slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]) {
+		if (!need_alloc)
+			return NULL;
+
+		page = alloc_page(GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_ZERO | __GFP_NOWARN);
+		if (!page)
+			return NULL;
+
+		slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index] = page;
+	}
+
+	addr = kmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+	addr += index_page_offset(index);
+
+	return addr;
+}
+
+static inline void put_rmap_list_entry(struct vma_slot *slot,
+				       unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+
+	pool_index = get_pool_index(slot, index);
+	BUG_ON(!slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+	kunmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+}
+
+static inline int entry_is_new(struct rmap_list_entry *entry)
+{
+	return !entry->item;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long get_index_orig_addr(struct vma_slot *slot,
+						unsigned long index)
+{
+	return slot->vma->vm_start + (index << PAGE_SHIFT);
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long get_entry_address(struct rmap_list_entry *entry)
+{
+	unsigned long addr;
+
+	if (is_addr(entry->addr))
+		addr = get_clean_addr(entry->addr);
+	else if (entry->item)
+		addr = get_rmap_addr(entry->item);
+	else
+		BUG();
+
+	return addr;
+}
+
+static inline struct rmap_item *get_entry_item(struct rmap_list_entry *entry)
+{
+	if (is_addr(entry->addr))
+		return NULL;
+
+	return entry->item;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_rmap_list_pool_count(struct vma_slot *slot,
+					    unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+
+	pool_index = get_pool_index(slot, index);
+	BUG_ON(!slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+	slot->pool_counts[pool_index]++;
+}
+
+static inline void dec_rmap_list_pool_count(struct vma_slot *slot,
+					    unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+
+	pool_index = get_pool_index(slot, index);
+	BUG_ON(!slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+	BUG_ON(!slot->pool_counts[pool_index]);
+	slot->pool_counts[pool_index]--;
+}
+
+static inline int entry_has_rmap(struct rmap_list_entry *entry)
+{
+	return !is_addr(entry->addr) && entry->item;
+}
+
+static inline void swap_entries(struct rmap_list_entry *entry1,
+				unsigned long index1,
+				struct rmap_list_entry *entry2,
+				unsigned long index2)
+{
+	struct rmap_list_entry tmp;
+
+	/* swapping two new entries is meaningless */
+	BUG_ON(entry_is_new(entry1) && entry_is_new(entry2));
+
+	tmp = *entry1;
+	*entry1 = *entry2;
+	*entry2 = tmp;
+
+	if (entry_has_rmap(entry1))
+		entry1->item->entry_index = index1;
+
+	if (entry_has_rmap(entry2))
+		entry2->item->entry_index = index2;
+
+	if (entry_has_rmap(entry1) && !entry_has_rmap(entry2)) {
+		inc_rmap_list_pool_count(entry1->item->slot, index1);
+		dec_rmap_list_pool_count(entry1->item->slot, index2);
+	} else if (!entry_has_rmap(entry1) && entry_has_rmap(entry2)) {
+		inc_rmap_list_pool_count(entry2->item->slot, index2);
+		dec_rmap_list_pool_count(entry2->item->slot, index1);
+	}
+}
+
+static inline void free_entry_item(struct rmap_list_entry *entry)
+{
+	unsigned long index;
+	struct rmap_item *item;
+
+	if (!is_addr(entry->addr)) {
+		BUG_ON(!entry->item);
+		item = entry->item;
+		entry->addr = get_rmap_addr(item);
+		set_is_addr(entry->addr);
+		index = item->entry_index;
+		remove_rmap_item_from_tree(item);
+		dec_rmap_list_pool_count(item->slot, index);
+		free_rmap_item(item);
+	}
+}
+
+static inline int pool_entry_boundary(unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long linear_addr;
+
+	linear_addr = sizeof(struct rmap_list_entry *) * index;
+	return index && !offset_in_page(linear_addr);
+}
+
+static inline void try_free_last_pool(struct vma_slot *slot,
+				      unsigned long index)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_index;
+
+	pool_index = get_pool_index(slot, index);
+	if (slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index] &&
+	    !slot->pool_counts[pool_index]) {
+		__free_page(slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index]);
+		slot->rmap_list_pool[pool_index] = NULL;
+		slot->flags |= UKSM_SLOT_NEED_SORT;
+	}
+
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long vma_item_index(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+					   struct rmap_item *item)
+{
+	return (get_rmap_addr(item) - vma->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+}
+
+static int within_same_pool(struct vma_slot *slot,
+			    unsigned long i, unsigned long j)
+{
+	unsigned long pool_i, pool_j;
+
+	pool_i = get_pool_index(slot, i);
+	pool_j = get_pool_index(slot, j);
+
+	return (pool_i == pool_j);
+}
+
+static void sort_rmap_entry_list(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	unsigned long i, j;
+	struct rmap_list_entry *entry, *swap_entry;
+
+	entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, 0, 0);
+	for (i = 0; i < slot->pages; ) {
+
+		if (!entry)
+			goto skip_whole_pool;
+
+		if (entry_is_new(entry))
+			goto next_entry;
+
+		if (is_addr(entry->addr)) {
+			entry->addr = 0;
+			goto next_entry;
+		}
+
+		j = vma_item_index(slot->vma, entry->item);
+		if (j == i)
+			goto next_entry;
+
+		if (within_same_pool(slot, i, j))
+			swap_entry = entry + j - i;
+		else
+			swap_entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, j, 1);
+
+		swap_entries(entry, i, swap_entry, j);
+		if (!within_same_pool(slot, i, j))
+			put_rmap_list_entry(slot, j);
+		continue;
+
+skip_whole_pool:
+		i += PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(*entry);
+		if (i < slot->pages)
+			entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, i, 0);
+		continue;
+
+next_entry:
+		if (i >= slot->pages - 1 ||
+		    !within_same_pool(slot, i, i + 1)) {
+			put_rmap_list_entry(slot, i);
+			if (i + 1 < slot->pages)
+				entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, i + 1, 0);
+		} else
+			entry++;
+		i++;
+		continue;
+	}
+
+	/* free empty pool entries which contain no rmap_item */
+	/* CAN be simplied to based on only pool_counts when bug freed !!!!! */
+	for (i = 0; i < slot->pool_size; i++) {
+		unsigned char has_rmap;
+		void *addr;
+
+		if (!slot->rmap_list_pool[i])
+			continue;
+
+		has_rmap = 0;
+		addr = kmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+		BUG_ON(!addr);
+		for (j = 0; j < PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(*entry); j++) {
+			entry = (struct rmap_list_entry *)addr + j;
+			if (is_addr(entry->addr))
+				continue;
+			if (!entry->item)
+				continue;
+			has_rmap = 1;
+		}
+		kunmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+		if (!has_rmap) {
+			BUG_ON(slot->pool_counts[i]);
+			__free_page(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+			slot->rmap_list_pool[i] = NULL;
+		}
+	}
+
+	slot->flags &= ~UKSM_SLOT_NEED_SORT;
+}
+
+/*
+ * vma_fully_scanned() - if all the pages in this slot have been scanned.
+ */
+static inline int vma_fully_scanned(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	return slot->pages_scanned == slot->pages;
+}
+
+/**
+ * get_next_rmap_item() - Get the next rmap_item in a vma_slot according to
+ * its random permutation. This function is embedded with the random
+ * permutation index management code.
+ */
+static struct rmap_item *get_next_rmap_item(struct vma_slot *slot, u32 *hash)
+{
+	unsigned long rand_range, addr, swap_index, scan_index;
+	struct rmap_item *item = NULL;
+	struct rmap_list_entry *scan_entry, *swap_entry = NULL;
+	struct page *page;
+
+	scan_index = swap_index = slot->pages_scanned % slot->pages;
+
+	if (pool_entry_boundary(scan_index))
+		try_free_last_pool(slot, scan_index - 1);
+
+	if (vma_fully_scanned(slot)) {
+		if (slot->flags & UKSM_SLOT_NEED_SORT)
+			slot->flags |= UKSM_SLOT_NEED_RERAND;
+		else
+			slot->flags &= ~UKSM_SLOT_NEED_RERAND;
+		if (slot->flags & UKSM_SLOT_NEED_SORT)
+			sort_rmap_entry_list(slot);
+	}
+
+	scan_entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, scan_index, 1);
+	if (!scan_entry)
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (entry_is_new(scan_entry)) {
+		scan_entry->addr = get_index_orig_addr(slot, scan_index);
+		set_is_addr(scan_entry->addr);
+	}
+
+	if (slot->flags & UKSM_SLOT_NEED_RERAND) {
+		rand_range = slot->pages - scan_index;
+		BUG_ON(!rand_range);
+		swap_index = scan_index + (prandom_u32() % rand_range);
+	}
+
+	if (swap_index != scan_index) {
+		swap_entry = get_rmap_list_entry(slot, swap_index, 1);
+
+		if (!swap_entry)
+			return NULL;
+
+		if (entry_is_new(swap_entry)) {
+			swap_entry->addr = get_index_orig_addr(slot,
+							       swap_index);
+			set_is_addr(swap_entry->addr);
+		}
+		swap_entries(scan_entry, scan_index, swap_entry, swap_index);
+	}
+
+	addr = get_entry_address(scan_entry);
+	item = get_entry_item(scan_entry);
+	BUG_ON(addr > slot->vma->vm_end || addr < slot->vma->vm_start);
+
+	page = follow_page(slot->vma, addr, FOLL_GET);
+	if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(page))
+		goto nopage;
+
+	if (!PageAnon(page))
+		goto putpage;
+
+	/*check is zero_page pfn or uksm_zero_page*/
+	if ((page_to_pfn(page) == zero_pfn)
+			|| (page_to_pfn(page) == uksm_zero_pfn))
+		goto putpage;
+
+	flush_anon_page(slot->vma, page, addr);
+	flush_dcache_page(page);
+
+
+	*hash = page_hash(page, hash_strength, 1);
+	inc_uksm_pages_scanned();
+	/*if the page content all zero, re-map to zero-page*/
+	if (find_zero_page_hash(hash_strength, *hash)) {
+		if (!cmp_and_merge_zero_page(slot->vma, page)) {
+			slot->pages_merged++;
+
+			/* For full-zero pages, no need to create rmap item */
+			goto putpage;
+		} else {
+			inc_rshash_neg(memcmp_cost / 2);
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!item) {
+		item = alloc_rmap_item();
+		if (item) {
+			/* It has already been zeroed */
+			item->slot = slot;
+			item->address = addr;
+			item->entry_index = scan_index;
+			scan_entry->item = item;
+			inc_rmap_list_pool_count(slot, scan_index);
+		} else
+			goto putpage;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(item->slot != slot);
+	/* the page may have changed */
+	item->page = page;
+	put_rmap_list_entry(slot, scan_index);
+	if (swap_entry)
+		put_rmap_list_entry(slot, swap_index);
+	return item;
+
+putpage:
+	put_page(page);
+	page = NULL;
+nopage:
+	/* no page, store addr back and free rmap_item if possible */
+	free_entry_item(scan_entry);
+	put_rmap_list_entry(slot, scan_index);
+	if (swap_entry)
+		put_rmap_list_entry(slot, swap_index);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline int in_stable_tree(struct rmap_item *rmap_item)
+{
+	return rmap_item->address & STABLE_FLAG;
+}
+
+/**
+ * scan_vma_one_page() - scan the next page in a vma_slot. Called with
+ * mmap_sem locked.
+ */
+static noinline void scan_vma_one_page(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	u32 hash;
+	struct mm_struct *mm;
+	struct rmap_item *rmap_item = NULL;
+	struct vm_area_struct *vma = slot->vma;
+
+	mm = vma->vm_mm;
+	BUG_ON(!mm);
+	BUG_ON(!slot);
+
+	rmap_item = get_next_rmap_item(slot, &hash);
+	if (!rmap_item)
+		goto out1;
+
+	if (PageKsm(rmap_item->page) && in_stable_tree(rmap_item))
+		goto out2;
+
+	cmp_and_merge_page(rmap_item, hash);
+out2:
+	put_page(rmap_item->page);
+out1:
+	slot->pages_scanned++;
+	slot->this_sampled++;
+	if (slot->fully_scanned_round != fully_scanned_round)
+		scanned_virtual_pages++;
+
+	if (vma_fully_scanned(slot))
+		slot->fully_scanned_round = fully_scanned_round;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long rung_get_pages(struct scan_rung *rung)
+{
+	struct slot_tree_node *node;
+
+	if (!rung->vma_root.rnode)
+		return 0;
+
+	node = container_of(rung->vma_root.rnode, struct slot_tree_node, snode);
+
+	return node->size;
+}
+
+#define RUNG_SAMPLED_MIN	3
+
+static inline
+void uksm_calc_rung_step(struct scan_rung *rung,
+			 unsigned long page_time, unsigned long ratio)
+{
+	unsigned long sampled, pages;
+
+	/* will be fully scanned ? */
+	if (!rung->cover_msecs) {
+		rung->step = 1;
+		return;
+	}
+
+	sampled = rung->cover_msecs * (NSEC_PER_MSEC / TIME_RATIO_SCALE)
+		  * ratio / page_time;
+
+	/*
+	 *  Before we finsish a scan round and expensive per-round jobs,
+	 *  we need to have a chance to estimate the per page time. So
+	 *  the sampled number can not be too small.
+	 */
+	if (sampled < RUNG_SAMPLED_MIN)
+		sampled = RUNG_SAMPLED_MIN;
+
+	pages = rung_get_pages(rung);
+	if (likely(pages > sampled))
+		rung->step = pages / sampled;
+	else
+		rung->step = 1;
+}
+
+static inline int step_need_recalc(struct scan_rung *rung)
+{
+	unsigned long pages, stepmax;
+
+	pages = rung_get_pages(rung);
+	stepmax = pages / RUNG_SAMPLED_MIN;
+
+	return pages && (rung->step > pages ||
+			 (stepmax && rung->step > stepmax));
+}
+
+static inline
+void reset_current_scan(struct scan_rung *rung, int finished, int step_recalc)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+
+	if (finished)
+		rung->flags |= UKSM_RUNG_ROUND_FINISHED;
+
+	if (step_recalc || step_need_recalc(rung)) {
+		uksm_calc_rung_step(rung, uksm_ema_page_time, rung->cpu_ratio);
+		BUG_ON(step_need_recalc(rung));
+	}
+
+	slot_iter_index = prandom_u32() % rung->step;
+	BUG_ON(!rung->vma_root.rnode);
+	slot = sradix_tree_next(&rung->vma_root, NULL, 0, slot_iter);
+	BUG_ON(!slot);
+
+	rung->current_scan = slot;
+	rung->current_offset = slot_iter_index;
+}
+
+static inline struct sradix_tree_root *slot_get_root(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	return &slot->rung->vma_root;
+}
+
+/*
+ * return if resetted.
+ */
+static int advance_current_scan(struct scan_rung *rung)
+{
+	unsigned short n;
+	struct vma_slot *slot, *next = NULL;
+
+	BUG_ON(!rung->vma_root.num);
+
+	slot = rung->current_scan;
+	n = (slot->pages - rung->current_offset) % rung->step;
+	slot_iter_index = rung->step - n;
+	next = sradix_tree_next(&rung->vma_root, slot->snode,
+				slot->sindex, slot_iter);
+
+	if (next) {
+		rung->current_offset = slot_iter_index;
+		rung->current_scan = next;
+		return 0;
+	} else {
+		reset_current_scan(rung, 1, 0);
+		return 1;
+	}
+}
+
+static inline void rung_rm_slot(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *rung = slot->rung;
+	struct sradix_tree_root *root;
+
+	if (rung->current_scan == slot)
+		advance_current_scan(rung);
+
+	root = slot_get_root(slot);
+	sradix_tree_delete_from_leaf(root, slot->snode, slot->sindex);
+	slot->snode = NULL;
+	if (step_need_recalc(rung)) {
+		uksm_calc_rung_step(rung, uksm_ema_page_time, rung->cpu_ratio);
+		BUG_ON(step_need_recalc(rung));
+	}
+
+	/* In case advance_current_scan loop back to this slot again */
+	if (rung->vma_root.num && rung->current_scan == slot)
+		reset_current_scan(slot->rung, 1, 0);
+}
+
+static inline void rung_add_new_slots(struct scan_rung *rung,
+			struct vma_slot **slots, unsigned long num)
+{
+	int err;
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+	unsigned long i;
+	struct sradix_tree_root *root = &rung->vma_root;
+
+	err = sradix_tree_enter(root, (void **)slots, num);
+	BUG_ON(err);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < num; i++) {
+		slot = slots[i];
+		slot->rung = rung;
+		BUG_ON(vma_fully_scanned(slot));
+	}
+
+	if (rung->vma_root.num == num)
+		reset_current_scan(rung, 0, 1);
+}
+
+static inline int rung_add_one_slot(struct scan_rung *rung,
+				     struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	err = sradix_tree_enter(&rung->vma_root, (void **)&slot, 1);
+	if (err)
+		return err;
+
+	slot->rung = rung;
+	if (rung->vma_root.num == 1)
+		reset_current_scan(rung, 0, 1);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return true if the slot is deleted from its rung.
+ */
+static inline int vma_rung_enter(struct vma_slot *slot, struct scan_rung *rung)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *old_rung = slot->rung;
+	int err;
+
+	if (old_rung == rung)
+		return 0;
+
+	rung_rm_slot(slot);
+	err = rung_add_one_slot(rung, slot);
+	if (err) {
+		err = rung_add_one_slot(old_rung, slot);
+		WARN_ON(err); /* OOPS, badly OOM, we lost this slot */
+	}
+
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static inline int vma_rung_up(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+
+	rung = slot->rung;
+	if (slot->rung != &uksm_scan_ladder[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE-1])
+		rung++;
+
+	return vma_rung_enter(slot, rung);
+}
+
+static inline int vma_rung_down(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+
+	rung = slot->rung;
+	if (slot->rung != &uksm_scan_ladder[0])
+		rung--;
+
+	return vma_rung_enter(slot, rung);
+}
+
+/**
+ * cal_dedup_ratio() - Calculate the deduplication ratio for this slot.
+ */
+static unsigned long cal_dedup_ratio(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	unsigned long ret;
+	unsigned long pages;
+
+	pages = slot->this_sampled;
+	if (!pages)
+		return 0;
+
+	BUG_ON(slot->pages_scanned == slot->last_scanned);
+
+	ret = slot->pages_merged;
+
+	/* Thrashing area filtering */
+	if (ret && uksm_thrash_threshold) {
+		if (slot->pages_cowed * 100 / slot->pages_merged
+		    > uksm_thrash_threshold) {
+			ret = 0;
+		} else {
+			ret = slot->pages_merged - slot->pages_cowed;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return ret * 100 / pages;
+}
+
+/**
+ * cal_dedup_ratio() - Calculate the deduplication ratio for this slot.
+ */
+static unsigned long cal_dedup_ratio_old(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	unsigned long ret;
+	unsigned long pages;
+
+	pages = slot->pages;
+	if (!pages)
+		return 0;
+
+	ret = slot->pages_bemerged;
+
+	/* Thrashing area filtering */
+	if (ret && uksm_thrash_threshold) {
+		if (slot->pages_cowed * 100 / slot->pages_bemerged
+		    > uksm_thrash_threshold) {
+			ret = 0;
+		} else {
+			ret = slot->pages_bemerged - slot->pages_cowed;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return ret * 100 / pages;
+}
+
+/**
+ * stable_node_reinsert() - When the hash_strength has been adjusted, the
+ * stable tree need to be restructured, this is the function re-inserting the
+ * stable node.
+ */
+static inline void stable_node_reinsert(struct stable_node *new_node,
+					struct page *page,
+					struct rb_root *root_treep,
+					struct list_head *tree_node_listp,
+					u32 hash)
+{
+	struct rb_node **new = &root_treep->rb_node;
+	struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+	struct tree_node *tree_node;
+	struct page *tree_page;
+	int cmp;
+
+	while (*new) {
+		int cmp;
+
+		tree_node = rb_entry(*new, struct tree_node, node);
+
+		cmp = hash_cmp(hash, tree_node->hash);
+
+		if (cmp < 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_left;
+		} else if (cmp > 0) {
+			parent = *new;
+			new = &parent->rb_right;
+		} else
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (*new) {
+		/* find a stable tree node with same first level hash value */
+		stable_node_hash_max(new_node, page, hash);
+		if (tree_node->count == 1) {
+			stable_node = rb_entry(tree_node->sub_root.rb_node,
+					       struct stable_node, node);
+			tree_page = get_uksm_page(stable_node, 1, 0);
+			if (tree_page) {
+				stable_node_hash_max(stable_node,
+						      tree_page, hash);
+				put_page(tree_page);
+
+				/* prepare for stable node insertion */
+
+				cmp = hash_cmp(new_node->hash_max,
+						   stable_node->hash_max);
+				parent = &stable_node->node;
+				if (cmp < 0)
+					new = &parent->rb_left;
+				else if (cmp > 0)
+					new = &parent->rb_right;
+				else
+					goto failed;
+
+				goto add_node;
+			} else {
+				/* the only stable_node deleted, the tree node
+				 * was not deleted.
+				 */
+				goto tree_node_reuse;
+			}
+		}
+
+		/* well, search the collision subtree */
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+		parent = NULL;
+		BUG_ON(!*new);
+		while (*new) {
+			int cmp;
+
+			stable_node = rb_entry(*new, struct stable_node, node);
+
+			cmp = hash_cmp(new_node->hash_max,
+					   stable_node->hash_max);
+
+			if (cmp < 0) {
+				parent = *new;
+				new = &parent->rb_left;
+			} else if (cmp > 0) {
+				parent = *new;
+				new = &parent->rb_right;
+			} else {
+				/* oh, no, still a collision */
+				goto failed;
+			}
+		}
+
+		goto add_node;
+	}
+
+	/* no tree node found */
+	tree_node = alloc_tree_node(tree_node_listp);
+	if (!tree_node) {
+		pr_err("UKSM: memory allocation error!\n");
+		goto failed;
+	} else {
+		tree_node->hash = hash;
+		rb_link_node(&tree_node->node, parent, new);
+		rb_insert_color(&tree_node->node, root_treep);
+
+tree_node_reuse:
+		/* prepare for stable node insertion */
+		parent = NULL;
+		new = &tree_node->sub_root.rb_node;
+	}
+
+add_node:
+	rb_link_node(&new_node->node, parent, new);
+	rb_insert_color(&new_node->node, &tree_node->sub_root);
+	new_node->tree_node = tree_node;
+	tree_node->count++;
+	return;
+
+failed:
+	/* This can only happen when two nodes have collided
+	 * in two levels.
+	 */
+	new_node->tree_node = NULL;
+	return;
+}
+
+static inline void free_all_tree_nodes(struct list_head *list)
+{
+	struct tree_node *node, *tmp;
+
+	list_for_each_entry_safe(node, tmp, list, all_list) {
+		free_tree_node(node);
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * stable_tree_delta_hash() - Delta hash the stable tree from previous hash
+ * strength to the current hash_strength. It re-structures the hole tree.
+ */
+static inline void stable_tree_delta_hash(u32 prev_hash_strength)
+{
+	struct stable_node *node, *tmp;
+	struct rb_root *root_new_treep;
+	struct list_head *new_tree_node_listp;
+
+	stable_tree_index = (stable_tree_index + 1) % 2;
+	root_new_treep = &root_stable_tree[stable_tree_index];
+	new_tree_node_listp = &stable_tree_node_list[stable_tree_index];
+	*root_new_treep = RB_ROOT;
+	BUG_ON(!list_empty(new_tree_node_listp));
+
+	/*
+	 * we need to be safe, the node could be removed by get_uksm_page()
+	 */
+	list_for_each_entry_safe(node, tmp, &stable_node_list, all_list) {
+		void *addr;
+		struct page *node_page;
+		u32 hash;
+
+		/*
+		 * We are completely re-structuring the stable nodes to a new
+		 * stable tree. We don't want to touch the old tree unlinks and
+		 * old tree_nodes. The old tree_nodes will be freed at once.
+		 */
+		node_page = get_uksm_page(node, 0, 0);
+		if (!node_page)
+			continue;
+
+		if (node->tree_node) {
+			hash = node->tree_node->hash;
+
+			addr = kmap_atomic(node_page);
+
+			hash = delta_hash(addr, prev_hash_strength,
+					  hash_strength, hash);
+			kunmap_atomic(addr);
+		} else {
+			/*
+			 *it was not inserted to rbtree due to collision in last
+			 *round scan.
+			 */
+			hash = page_hash(node_page, hash_strength, 0);
+		}
+
+		stable_node_reinsert(node, node_page, root_new_treep,
+				     new_tree_node_listp, hash);
+		put_page(node_page);
+	}
+
+	root_stable_treep = root_new_treep;
+	free_all_tree_nodes(stable_tree_node_listp);
+	BUG_ON(!list_empty(stable_tree_node_listp));
+	stable_tree_node_listp = new_tree_node_listp;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_hash_strength(unsigned long delta)
+{
+	hash_strength += 1 << delta;
+	if (hash_strength > HASH_STRENGTH_MAX)
+		hash_strength = HASH_STRENGTH_MAX;
+}
+
+static inline void dec_hash_strength(unsigned long delta)
+{
+	unsigned long change = 1 << delta;
+
+	if (hash_strength <= change + 1)
+		hash_strength = 1;
+	else
+		hash_strength -= change;
+}
+
+static inline void inc_hash_strength_delta(void)
+{
+	hash_strength_delta++;
+	if (hash_strength_delta > HASH_STRENGTH_DELTA_MAX)
+		hash_strength_delta = HASH_STRENGTH_DELTA_MAX;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long get_current_neg_ratio(void)
+{
+	u64 pos = benefit.pos;
+	u64 neg = benefit.neg;
+
+	if (!neg)
+		return 0;
+
+	if (!pos || neg > pos)
+		return 100;
+
+	if (neg > div64_u64(U64_MAX, 100))
+		pos = div64_u64(pos, 100);
+	else
+		neg *= 100;
+
+	return div64_u64(neg, pos);
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long get_current_benefit(void)
+{
+	u64 pos = benefit.pos;
+	u64 neg = benefit.neg;
+	u64 scanned = benefit.scanned;
+
+	if (neg > pos)
+		return 0;
+
+	return div64_u64((pos - neg), scanned);
+}
+
+static inline int judge_rshash_direction(void)
+{
+	u64 current_neg_ratio, stable_benefit;
+	u64 current_benefit, delta = 0;
+	int ret = STILL;
+
+	/*
+	 * Try to probe a value after the boot, and in case the system
+	 * are still for a long time.
+	 */
+	if ((fully_scanned_round & 0xFFULL) == 10) {
+		ret = OBSCURE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	current_neg_ratio = get_current_neg_ratio();
+
+	if (current_neg_ratio == 0) {
+		rshash_neg_cont_zero++;
+		if (rshash_neg_cont_zero > 2)
+			return GO_DOWN;
+		else
+			return STILL;
+	}
+	rshash_neg_cont_zero = 0;
+
+	if (current_neg_ratio > 90) {
+		ret = GO_UP;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	current_benefit = get_current_benefit();
+	stable_benefit = rshash_state.stable_benefit;
+
+	if (!stable_benefit) {
+		ret = OBSCURE;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	if (current_benefit > stable_benefit)
+		delta = current_benefit - stable_benefit;
+	else if (current_benefit < stable_benefit)
+		delta = stable_benefit - current_benefit;
+
+	delta = div64_u64(100 * delta, stable_benefit);
+
+	if (delta > 50) {
+		rshash_cont_obscure++;
+		if (rshash_cont_obscure > 2)
+			return OBSCURE;
+		else
+			return STILL;
+	}
+
+out:
+	rshash_cont_obscure = 0;
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * rshash_adjust() - The main function to control the random sampling state
+ * machine for hash strength adapting.
+ *
+ * return true if hash_strength has changed.
+ */
+static inline int rshash_adjust(void)
+{
+	unsigned long prev_hash_strength = hash_strength;
+
+	if (!encode_benefit())
+		return 0;
+
+	switch (rshash_state.state) {
+	case RSHASH_STILL:
+		switch (judge_rshash_direction()) {
+		case GO_UP:
+			if (rshash_state.pre_direct == GO_DOWN)
+				hash_strength_delta = 0;
+
+			inc_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+			rshash_state.stable_benefit = get_current_benefit();
+			rshash_state.pre_direct = GO_UP;
+			break;
+
+		case GO_DOWN:
+			if (rshash_state.pre_direct == GO_UP)
+				hash_strength_delta = 0;
+
+			dec_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+			rshash_state.stable_benefit = get_current_benefit();
+			rshash_state.pre_direct = GO_DOWN;
+			break;
+
+		case OBSCURE:
+			rshash_state.stable_point = hash_strength;
+			rshash_state.turn_point_down = hash_strength;
+			rshash_state.turn_point_up = hash_strength;
+			rshash_state.turn_benefit_down = get_current_benefit();
+			rshash_state.turn_benefit_up = get_current_benefit();
+			rshash_state.lookup_window_index = 0;
+			rshash_state.state = RSHASH_TRYDOWN;
+			dec_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+			break;
+
+		case STILL:
+			break;
+		default:
+			BUG();
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case RSHASH_TRYDOWN:
+		if (rshash_state.lookup_window_index++ % 5 == 0)
+			rshash_state.below_count = 0;
+
+		if (get_current_benefit() < rshash_state.stable_benefit)
+			rshash_state.below_count++;
+		else if (get_current_benefit() >
+			 rshash_state.turn_benefit_down) {
+			rshash_state.turn_point_down = hash_strength;
+			rshash_state.turn_benefit_down = get_current_benefit();
+		}
+
+		if (rshash_state.below_count >= 3 ||
+		    judge_rshash_direction() == GO_UP ||
+		    hash_strength == 1) {
+			hash_strength = rshash_state.stable_point;
+			hash_strength_delta = 0;
+			inc_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+			rshash_state.lookup_window_index = 0;
+			rshash_state.state = RSHASH_TRYUP;
+			hash_strength_delta = 0;
+		} else {
+			dec_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+		}
+		break;
+
+	case RSHASH_TRYUP:
+		if (rshash_state.lookup_window_index++ % 5 == 0)
+			rshash_state.below_count = 0;
+
+		if (get_current_benefit() < rshash_state.turn_benefit_down)
+			rshash_state.below_count++;
+		else if (get_current_benefit() > rshash_state.turn_benefit_up) {
+			rshash_state.turn_point_up = hash_strength;
+			rshash_state.turn_benefit_up = get_current_benefit();
+		}
+
+		if (rshash_state.below_count >= 3 ||
+		    judge_rshash_direction() == GO_DOWN ||
+		    hash_strength == HASH_STRENGTH_MAX) {
+			hash_strength = rshash_state.turn_benefit_up >
+				rshash_state.turn_benefit_down ?
+				rshash_state.turn_point_up :
+				rshash_state.turn_point_down;
+
+			rshash_state.state = RSHASH_PRE_STILL;
+		} else {
+			inc_hash_strength(hash_strength_delta);
+			inc_hash_strength_delta();
+		}
+
+		break;
+
+	case RSHASH_NEW:
+	case RSHASH_PRE_STILL:
+		rshash_state.stable_benefit = get_current_benefit();
+		rshash_state.state = RSHASH_STILL;
+		hash_strength_delta = 0;
+		break;
+	default:
+		BUG();
+	}
+
+	/* rshash_neg = rshash_pos = 0; */
+	reset_benefit();
+
+	if (prev_hash_strength != hash_strength)
+		stable_tree_delta_hash(prev_hash_strength);
+
+	return prev_hash_strength != hash_strength;
+}
+
+/**
+ * round_update_ladder() - The main function to do update of all the
+ * adjustments whenever a scan round is finished.
+ */
+static noinline void round_update_ladder(void)
+{
+	int i;
+	unsigned long dedup;
+	struct vma_slot *slot, *tmp_slot;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++)
+		uksm_scan_ladder[i].flags &= ~UKSM_RUNG_ROUND_FINISHED;
+
+	list_for_each_entry_safe(slot, tmp_slot, &vma_slot_dedup, dedup_list) {
+
+		/* slot may be rung_rm_slot() when mm exits */
+		if (slot->snode) {
+			dedup = cal_dedup_ratio_old(slot);
+			if (dedup && dedup >= uksm_abundant_threshold)
+				vma_rung_up(slot);
+		}
+
+		slot->pages_bemerged = 0;
+		slot->pages_cowed = 0;
+
+		list_del_init(&slot->dedup_list);
+	}
+}
+
+static void uksm_del_vma_slot(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	int i, j;
+	struct rmap_list_entry *entry;
+
+	if (slot->snode) {
+		/*
+		 * In case it just failed when entering the rung, it's not
+		 * necessary.
+		 */
+		rung_rm_slot(slot);
+	}
+
+	if (!list_empty(&slot->dedup_list))
+		list_del(&slot->dedup_list);
+
+	if (!slot->rmap_list_pool || !slot->pool_counts) {
+		/* In case it OOMed in uksm_vma_enter() */
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < slot->pool_size; i++) {
+		void *addr;
+
+		if (!slot->rmap_list_pool[i])
+			continue;
+
+		addr = kmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+		for (j = 0; j < PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(*entry); j++) {
+			entry = (struct rmap_list_entry *)addr + j;
+			if (is_addr(entry->addr))
+				continue;
+			if (!entry->item)
+				continue;
+
+			remove_rmap_item_from_tree(entry->item);
+			free_rmap_item(entry->item);
+			slot->pool_counts[i]--;
+		}
+		BUG_ON(slot->pool_counts[i]);
+		kunmap(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+		__free_page(slot->rmap_list_pool[i]);
+	}
+	kfree(slot->rmap_list_pool);
+	kfree(slot->pool_counts);
+
+out:
+	slot->rung = NULL;
+	if (slot->flags & UKSM_SLOT_IN_UKSM) {
+		BUG_ON(uksm_pages_total < slot->pages);
+		uksm_pages_total -= slot->pages;
+	}
+
+	if (slot->fully_scanned_round == fully_scanned_round)
+		scanned_virtual_pages -= slot->pages;
+	else
+		scanned_virtual_pages -= slot->pages_scanned;
+	free_vma_slot(slot);
+}
+
+
+#define SPIN_LOCK_PERIOD	32
+static struct vma_slot *cleanup_slots[SPIN_LOCK_PERIOD];
+static inline void cleanup_vma_slots(void)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+	int i;
+
+	i = 0;
+	spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+	while (!list_empty(&vma_slot_del)) {
+		slot = list_entry(vma_slot_del.next,
+				  struct vma_slot, slot_list);
+		list_del(&slot->slot_list);
+		cleanup_slots[i++] = slot;
+		if (i == SPIN_LOCK_PERIOD) {
+			spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+			while (--i >= 0)
+				uksm_del_vma_slot(cleanup_slots[i]);
+			i = 0;
+			spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+		}
+	}
+	spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+
+	while (--i >= 0)
+		uksm_del_vma_slot(cleanup_slots[i]);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Expotional moving average formula
+ */
+static inline unsigned long ema(unsigned long curr, unsigned long last_ema)
+{
+	/*
+	 * For a very high burst, even the ema cannot work well, a false very
+	 * high per-page time estimation can result in feedback in very high
+	 * overhead of context switch and rung update -- this will then lead
+	 * to higher per-paper time, this may not converge.
+	 *
+	 * Instead, we try to approach this value in a binary manner.
+	 */
+	if (curr > last_ema * 10)
+		return last_ema * 2;
+
+	return (EMA_ALPHA * curr + (100 - EMA_ALPHA) * last_ema) / 100;
+}
+
+/*
+ * convert cpu ratio in 1/TIME_RATIO_SCALE configured by user to
+ * nanoseconds based on current uksm_sleep_jiffies.
+ */
+static inline unsigned long cpu_ratio_to_nsec(unsigned int ratio)
+{
+	return NSEC_PER_USEC * jiffies_to_usecs(uksm_sleep_jiffies) /
+		(TIME_RATIO_SCALE - ratio) * ratio;
+}
+
+
+static inline unsigned long rung_real_ratio(int cpu_time_ratio)
+{
+	unsigned long ret;
+
+	BUG_ON(!cpu_time_ratio);
+
+	if (cpu_time_ratio > 0)
+		ret = cpu_time_ratio;
+	else
+		ret = (unsigned long)(-cpu_time_ratio) *
+			uksm_max_cpu_percentage / 100UL;
+
+	return ret ? ret : 1;
+}
+
+static noinline void uksm_calc_scan_pages(void)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *ladder = uksm_scan_ladder;
+	unsigned long sleep_usecs, nsecs;
+	unsigned long ratio;
+	int i;
+	unsigned long per_page;
+
+	if (uksm_ema_page_time > 100000 ||
+	    (((unsigned long) uksm_eval_round & (256UL - 1)) == 0UL))
+		uksm_ema_page_time = UKSM_PAGE_TIME_DEFAULT;
+
+	per_page = uksm_ema_page_time;
+	BUG_ON(!per_page);
+
+	/*
+	 * For every 8 eval round, we try to probe a uksm_sleep_jiffies value
+	 * based on saved user input.
+	 */
+	if (((unsigned long) uksm_eval_round & (8UL - 1)) == 0UL)
+		uksm_sleep_jiffies = uksm_sleep_saved;
+
+	/* We require a rung scan at least 1 page in a period. */
+	nsecs = per_page;
+	ratio = rung_real_ratio(ladder[0].cpu_ratio);
+	if (cpu_ratio_to_nsec(ratio) < nsecs) {
+		sleep_usecs = nsecs * (TIME_RATIO_SCALE - ratio) / ratio
+				/ NSEC_PER_USEC;
+		uksm_sleep_jiffies = usecs_to_jiffies(sleep_usecs) + 1;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		ratio = rung_real_ratio(ladder[i].cpu_ratio);
+		ladder[i].pages_to_scan = cpu_ratio_to_nsec(ratio) /
+					per_page;
+		BUG_ON(!ladder[i].pages_to_scan);
+		uksm_calc_rung_step(&ladder[i], per_page, ratio);
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * From the scan time of this round (ns) to next expected min sleep time
+ * (ms), be careful of the possible overflows. ratio is taken from
+ * rung_real_ratio()
+ */
+static inline
+unsigned int scan_time_to_sleep(unsigned long long scan_time, unsigned long ratio)
+{
+	scan_time >>= 20; /* to msec level now */
+	BUG_ON(scan_time > (ULONG_MAX / TIME_RATIO_SCALE));
+
+	return (unsigned int) ((unsigned long) scan_time *
+			       (TIME_RATIO_SCALE - ratio) / ratio);
+}
+
+#define __round_mask(x, y) ((__typeof__(x))((y)-1))
+#define round_up(x, y) ((((x)-1) | __round_mask(x, y))+1)
+
+static void uksm_vma_enter(struct vma_slot **slots, unsigned long num)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+
+	rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[0];
+	rung_add_new_slots(rung, slots, num);
+}
+
+static struct vma_slot *batch_slots[SLOT_TREE_NODE_STORE_SIZE];
+
+static void uksm_enter_all_slots(void)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot;
+	unsigned long index;
+	struct list_head empty_vma_list;
+	int i;
+
+	i = 0;
+	index = 0;
+	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&empty_vma_list);
+
+	spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+	while (!list_empty(&vma_slot_new)) {
+		slot = list_entry(vma_slot_new.next,
+				  struct vma_slot, slot_list);
+
+		if (!slot->vma->anon_vma) {
+			list_move(&slot->slot_list, &empty_vma_list);
+		} else if (vma_can_enter(slot->vma)) {
+			batch_slots[index++] = slot;
+			list_del_init(&slot->slot_list);
+		} else {
+			list_move(&slot->slot_list, &vma_slot_noadd);
+		}
+
+		if (++i == SPIN_LOCK_PERIOD ||
+		    (index && !(index % SLOT_TREE_NODE_STORE_SIZE))) {
+			spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+
+			if (index && !(index % SLOT_TREE_NODE_STORE_SIZE)) {
+				uksm_vma_enter(batch_slots, index);
+				index = 0;
+			}
+			i = 0;
+			cond_resched();
+			spin_lock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+		}
+	}
+
+	list_splice(&empty_vma_list, &vma_slot_new);
+
+	spin_unlock(&vma_slot_list_lock);
+
+	if (index)
+		uksm_vma_enter(batch_slots, index);
+
+}
+
+static inline int rung_round_finished(struct scan_rung *rung)
+{
+	return rung->flags & UKSM_RUNG_ROUND_FINISHED;
+}
+
+static inline void judge_slot(struct vma_slot *slot)
+{
+	struct scan_rung *rung = slot->rung;
+	unsigned long dedup;
+	int deleted;
+
+	dedup = cal_dedup_ratio(slot);
+	if (vma_fully_scanned(slot) && uksm_thrash_threshold)
+		deleted = vma_rung_enter(slot, &uksm_scan_ladder[0]);
+	else if (dedup && dedup >= uksm_abundant_threshold)
+		deleted = vma_rung_up(slot);
+	else
+		deleted = vma_rung_down(slot);
+
+	slot->pages_merged = 0;
+	slot->pages_cowed = 0;
+	slot->this_sampled = 0;
+
+	if (vma_fully_scanned(slot))
+		slot->pages_scanned = 0;
+
+	slot->last_scanned = slot->pages_scanned;
+
+	/* If its deleted in above, then rung was already advanced. */
+	if (!deleted)
+		advance_current_scan(rung);
+}
+
+
+static inline int hash_round_finished(void)
+{
+	if (scanned_virtual_pages > (uksm_pages_total >> 2)) {
+		scanned_virtual_pages = 0;
+		if (uksm_pages_scanned)
+			fully_scanned_round++;
+
+		return 1;
+	} else {
+		return 0;
+	}
+}
+
+#define UKSM_MMSEM_BATCH	5
+#define BUSY_RETRY		100
+
+/**
+ * uksm_do_scan()  - the main worker function.
+ */
+static noinline void uksm_do_scan(void)
+{
+	struct vma_slot *slot, *iter;
+	struct mm_struct *busy_mm;
+	unsigned char round_finished, all_rungs_emtpy;
+	int i, err, mmsem_batch;
+	unsigned long pcost;
+	long long delta_exec;
+	unsigned long vpages, max_cpu_ratio;
+	unsigned long long start_time, end_time, scan_time;
+	unsigned int expected_jiffies;
+
+	might_sleep();
+
+	vpages = 0;
+
+	start_time = task_sched_runtime(current);
+	max_cpu_ratio = 0;
+	mmsem_batch = 0;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE;) {
+		struct scan_rung *rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+		unsigned long ratio;
+		int busy_retry;
+
+		if (!rung->pages_to_scan) {
+			i++;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		if (!rung->vma_root.num) {
+			rung->pages_to_scan = 0;
+			i++;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		ratio = rung_real_ratio(rung->cpu_ratio);
+		if (ratio > max_cpu_ratio)
+			max_cpu_ratio = ratio;
+
+		busy_retry = BUSY_RETRY;
+		/*
+		 * Do not consider rung_round_finished() here, just used up the
+		 * rung->pages_to_scan quota.
+		 */
+		while (rung->pages_to_scan && rung->vma_root.num &&
+		       likely(!freezing(current))) {
+			int reset = 0;
+
+			slot = rung->current_scan;
+
+			BUG_ON(vma_fully_scanned(slot));
+
+			if (mmsem_batch)
+				err = 0;
+			else
+				err = try_down_read_slot_mmap_sem(slot);
+
+			if (err == -ENOENT) {
+rm_slot:
+				rung_rm_slot(slot);
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			busy_mm = slot->mm;
+
+			if (err == -EBUSY) {
+				/* skip other vmas on the same mm */
+				do {
+					reset = advance_current_scan(rung);
+					iter = rung->current_scan;
+					busy_retry--;
+					if (iter->vma->vm_mm != busy_mm ||
+					    !busy_retry || reset)
+						break;
+				} while (1);
+
+				if (iter->vma->vm_mm != busy_mm) {
+					continue;
+				} else {
+					/* scan round finsished */
+					break;
+				}
+			}
+
+			BUG_ON(!vma_can_enter(slot->vma));
+			if (uksm_test_exit(slot->vma->vm_mm)) {
+				mmsem_batch = 0;
+				mmap_read_unlock(slot->vma->vm_mm);
+				goto rm_slot;
+			}
+
+			if (mmsem_batch)
+				mmsem_batch--;
+			else
+				mmsem_batch = UKSM_MMSEM_BATCH;
+
+			/* Ok, we have take the mmap_sem, ready to scan */
+			scan_vma_one_page(slot);
+			rung->pages_to_scan--;
+			vpages++;
+
+			if (rung->current_offset + rung->step > slot->pages - 1
+			    || vma_fully_scanned(slot)) {
+				mmap_read_unlock(slot->vma->vm_mm);
+				judge_slot(slot);
+				mmsem_batch = 0;
+			} else {
+				rung->current_offset += rung->step;
+				if (!mmsem_batch)
+					mmap_read_unlock(slot->vma->vm_mm);
+			}
+
+			busy_retry = BUSY_RETRY;
+			cond_resched();
+		}
+
+		if (mmsem_batch) {
+			mmap_read_unlock(slot->vma->vm_mm);
+			mmsem_batch = 0;
+		}
+
+		if (freezing(current))
+			break;
+
+		cond_resched();
+	}
+	end_time = task_sched_runtime(current);
+	delta_exec = end_time - start_time;
+
+	if (freezing(current))
+		return;
+
+	cleanup_vma_slots();
+	uksm_enter_all_slots();
+
+	round_finished = 1;
+	all_rungs_emtpy = 1;
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		struct scan_rung *rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+
+		if (rung->vma_root.num) {
+			all_rungs_emtpy = 0;
+			if (!rung_round_finished(rung))
+				round_finished = 0;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (all_rungs_emtpy)
+		round_finished = 0;
+
+	if (round_finished) {
+		round_update_ladder();
+		uksm_eval_round++;
+
+		if (hash_round_finished() && rshash_adjust()) {
+			/* Reset the unstable root iff hash strength changed */
+			uksm_hash_round++;
+			root_unstable_tree = RB_ROOT;
+			free_all_tree_nodes(&unstable_tree_node_list);
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * A number of pages can hang around indefinitely on per-cpu
+		 * pagevecs, raised page count preventing write_protect_page
+		 * from merging them.  Though it doesn't really matter much,
+		 * it is puzzling to see some stuck in pages_volatile until
+		 * other activity jostles them out, and they also prevented
+		 * LTP's KSM test from succeeding deterministically; so drain
+		 * them here (here rather than on entry to uksm_do_scan(),
+		 * so we don't IPI too often when pages_to_scan is set low).
+		 */
+		lru_add_drain_all();
+	}
+
+
+	if (vpages && delta_exec > 0) {
+		pcost = (unsigned long) delta_exec / vpages;
+		if (likely(uksm_ema_page_time))
+			uksm_ema_page_time = ema(pcost, uksm_ema_page_time);
+		else
+			uksm_ema_page_time = pcost;
+	}
+
+	uksm_calc_scan_pages();
+	uksm_sleep_real = uksm_sleep_jiffies;
+	/* in case of radical cpu bursts, apply the upper bound */
+	end_time = task_sched_runtime(current);
+	if (max_cpu_ratio && end_time > start_time) {
+		scan_time = end_time - start_time;
+		expected_jiffies = msecs_to_jiffies(
+			scan_time_to_sleep(scan_time, max_cpu_ratio));
+
+		if (expected_jiffies > uksm_sleep_real)
+			uksm_sleep_real = expected_jiffies;
+
+		/* We have a 1 second up bound for responsiveness. */
+		if (jiffies_to_msecs(uksm_sleep_real) > MSEC_PER_SEC)
+			uksm_sleep_real = msecs_to_jiffies(1000);
+	}
+
+	return;
+}
+
+static int ksmd_should_run(void)
+{
+	return uksm_run & UKSM_RUN_MERGE;
+}
+
+static int uksm_scan_thread(void *nothing)
+{
+	set_freezable();
+	set_user_nice(current, 5);
+
+	while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
+		mutex_lock(&uksm_thread_mutex);
+		if (ksmd_should_run())
+			uksm_do_scan();
+		mutex_unlock(&uksm_thread_mutex);
+
+		try_to_freeze();
+
+		if (ksmd_should_run()) {
+			schedule_timeout_interruptible(uksm_sleep_real);
+			uksm_sleep_times++;
+		} else {
+			wait_event_freezable(uksm_thread_wait,
+				ksmd_should_run() || kthread_should_stop());
+		}
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void rmap_walk_ksm(struct page *page, struct rmap_walk_control *rwc)
+{
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+	struct node_vma *node_vma;
+	struct rmap_item *rmap_item;
+	int search_new_forks = 0;
+	unsigned long address;
+
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageKsm(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+
+	stable_node = page_stable_node(page);
+	if (!stable_node)
+		return;
+again:
+	hlist_for_each_entry(node_vma, &stable_node->hlist, hlist) {
+		hlist_for_each_entry(rmap_item, &node_vma->rmap_hlist, hlist) {
+			struct anon_vma *anon_vma = rmap_item->anon_vma;
+			struct anon_vma_chain *vmac;
+			struct vm_area_struct *vma;
+
+			cond_resched();
+			anon_vma_lock_read(anon_vma);
+			anon_vma_interval_tree_foreach(vmac, &anon_vma->rb_root,
+						       0, ULONG_MAX) {
+				cond_resched();
+				vma = vmac->vma;
+				address = get_rmap_addr(rmap_item);
+
+				if (address < vma->vm_start ||
+				    address >= vma->vm_end)
+					continue;
+
+				if ((rmap_item->slot->vma == vma) ==
+				    search_new_forks)
+					continue;
+
+				if (rwc->invalid_vma && rwc->invalid_vma(vma, rwc->arg))
+					continue;
+
+				if (!rwc->rmap_one(page, vma, address, rwc->arg)) {
+					anon_vma_unlock_read(anon_vma);
+					return;
+				}
+
+				if (rwc->done && rwc->done(page)) {
+					anon_vma_unlock_read(anon_vma);
+					return;
+				}
+			}
+			anon_vma_unlock_read(anon_vma);
+		}
+	}
+	if (!search_new_forks++)
+		goto again;
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_MIGRATION
+/* Common ksm interface but may be specific to uksm */
+void ksm_migrate_page(struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage)
+{
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(oldpage), oldpage);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(newpage), newpage);
+	VM_BUG_ON(newpage->mapping != oldpage->mapping);
+
+	stable_node = page_stable_node(newpage);
+	if (stable_node) {
+		VM_BUG_ON(stable_node->kpfn != page_to_pfn(oldpage));
+		stable_node->kpfn = page_to_pfn(newpage);
+		/*
+		 * newpage->mapping was set in advance; now we need smp_wmb()
+		 * to make sure that the new stable_node->kpfn is visible
+		 * to get_ksm_page() before it can see that oldpage->mapping
+		 * has gone stale (or that PageSwapCache has been cleared).
+		 */
+		smp_wmb();
+		set_page_stable_node(oldpage, NULL);
+	}
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_MIGRATION */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE
+static struct stable_node *uksm_check_stable_tree(unsigned long start_pfn,
+						 unsigned long end_pfn)
+{
+	struct rb_node *node;
+
+	for (node = rb_first(root_stable_treep); node; node = rb_next(node)) {
+		struct stable_node *stable_node;
+
+		stable_node = rb_entry(node, struct stable_node, node);
+		if (stable_node->kpfn >= start_pfn &&
+		    stable_node->kpfn < end_pfn)
+			return stable_node;
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static int uksm_memory_callback(struct notifier_block *self,
+			       unsigned long action, void *arg)
+{
+	struct memory_notify *mn = arg;
+	struct stable_node *stable_node;
+
+	switch (action) {
+	case MEM_GOING_OFFLINE:
+		/*
+		 * Keep it very simple for now: just lock out ksmd and
+		 * MADV_UNMERGEABLE while any memory is going offline.
+		 * mutex_lock_nested() is necessary because lockdep was alarmed
+		 * that here we take uksm_thread_mutex inside notifier chain
+		 * mutex, and later take notifier chain mutex inside
+		 * uksm_thread_mutex to unlock it.   But that's safe because both
+		 * are inside mem_hotplug_mutex.
+		 */
+		mutex_lock_nested(&uksm_thread_mutex, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
+		break;
+
+	case MEM_OFFLINE:
+		/*
+		 * Most of the work is done by page migration; but there might
+		 * be a few stable_nodes left over, still pointing to struct
+		 * pages which have been offlined: prune those from the tree.
+		 */
+		while ((stable_node = uksm_check_stable_tree(mn->start_pfn,
+					mn->start_pfn + mn->nr_pages)) != NULL)
+			remove_node_from_stable_tree(stable_node, 1, 1);
+		/* fallthrough */
+
+	case MEM_CANCEL_OFFLINE:
+		mutex_unlock(&uksm_thread_mutex);
+		break;
+	}
+	return NOTIFY_OK;
+}
+#endif /* CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+/*
+ * This all compiles without CONFIG_SYSFS, but is a waste of space.
+ */
+
+#define UKSM_ATTR_RO(_name) \
+	static struct kobj_attribute _name##_attr = __ATTR_RO(_name)
+#define UKSM_ATTR(_name) \
+	static struct kobj_attribute _name##_attr = \
+		__ATTR(_name, 0644, _name##_show, _name##_store)
+
+static ssize_t max_cpu_percentage_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				    struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", uksm_max_cpu_percentage);
+}
+
+static ssize_t max_cpu_percentage_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				     struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				     const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long max_cpu_percentage;
+	int err;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &max_cpu_percentage);
+	if (err || max_cpu_percentage > 100)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	if (max_cpu_percentage == 100)
+		max_cpu_percentage = 99;
+	else if (max_cpu_percentage < 10)
+		max_cpu_percentage = 10;
+
+	uksm_max_cpu_percentage = max_cpu_percentage;
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(max_cpu_percentage);
+
+static ssize_t sleep_millisecs_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				    struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", jiffies_to_msecs(uksm_sleep_jiffies));
+}
+
+static ssize_t sleep_millisecs_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				     struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				     const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	unsigned long msecs;
+	int err;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &msecs);
+	if (err || msecs > MSEC_PER_SEC)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	uksm_sleep_jiffies = msecs_to_jiffies(msecs);
+	uksm_sleep_saved = uksm_sleep_jiffies;
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(sleep_millisecs);
+
+
+static ssize_t cpu_governor_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				  struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	int n = sizeof(uksm_cpu_governor_str) / sizeof(char *);
+	int i;
+
+	buf[0] = '\0';
+	for (i = 0; i < n ; i++) {
+		if (uksm_cpu_governor == i)
+			strcat(buf, "[");
+
+		strcat(buf, uksm_cpu_governor_str[i]);
+
+		if (uksm_cpu_governor == i)
+			strcat(buf, "]");
+
+		strcat(buf, " ");
+	}
+	strcat(buf, "\n");
+
+	return strlen(buf);
+}
+
+static inline void init_performance_values(void)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	struct uksm_cpu_preset_s *preset = uksm_cpu_preset + uksm_cpu_governor;
+
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = uksm_scan_ladder + i;
+		rung->cpu_ratio = preset->cpu_ratio[i];
+		rung->cover_msecs = preset->cover_msecs[i];
+	}
+
+	uksm_max_cpu_percentage = preset->max_cpu;
+}
+
+static ssize_t cpu_governor_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				   struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				   const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int n = sizeof(uksm_cpu_governor_str) / sizeof(char *);
+
+	for (n--; n >= 0 ; n--) {
+		if (!strncmp(buf, uksm_cpu_governor_str[n],
+			     strlen(uksm_cpu_governor_str[n])))
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (n < 0)
+		return -EINVAL;
+	else
+		uksm_cpu_governor = n;
+
+	init_performance_values();
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(cpu_governor);
+
+static ssize_t run_show(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+			char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", uksm_run);
+}
+
+static ssize_t run_store(struct kobject *kobj, struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+			 const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &flags);
+	if (err || flags > UINT_MAX)
+		return -EINVAL;
+	if (flags > UKSM_RUN_MERGE)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	mutex_lock(&uksm_thread_mutex);
+	if (uksm_run != flags)
+		uksm_run = flags;
+	mutex_unlock(&uksm_thread_mutex);
+
+	if (flags & UKSM_RUN_MERGE)
+		wake_up_interruptible(&uksm_thread_wait);
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(run);
+
+static ssize_t abundant_threshold_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				     struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", uksm_abundant_threshold);
+}
+
+static ssize_t abundant_threshold_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				      struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				      const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &flags);
+	if (err || flags > 99)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	uksm_abundant_threshold = flags;
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(abundant_threshold);
+
+static ssize_t thrash_threshold_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				     struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%u\n", uksm_thrash_threshold);
+}
+
+static ssize_t thrash_threshold_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				      struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				      const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int err;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	err = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &flags);
+	if (err || flags > 99)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	uksm_thrash_threshold = flags;
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(thrash_threshold);
+
+static ssize_t cpu_ratios_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+			       struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	int i, size;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	char *p = buf;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+
+		if (rung->cpu_ratio > 0)
+			size = sprintf(p, "%d ", rung->cpu_ratio);
+		else
+			size = sprintf(p, "MAX/%d ",
+					TIME_RATIO_SCALE / -rung->cpu_ratio);
+
+		p += size;
+	}
+
+	*p++ = '\n';
+	*p = '\0';
+
+	return p - buf;
+}
+
+static ssize_t cpu_ratios_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				      struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				      const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int i, cpuratios[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE], err;
+	unsigned long value;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	char *p, *end = NULL;
+
+	p = kzalloc(count, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!p)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	memcpy(p, buf, count);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		if (i != SCAN_LADDER_SIZE - 1) {
+			end = strchr(p, ' ');
+			if (!end)
+				return -EINVAL;
+
+			*end = '\0';
+		}
+
+		if (strstr(p, "MAX/")) {
+			p = strchr(p, '/') + 1;
+			err = kstrtoul(p, 10, &value);
+			if (err || value > TIME_RATIO_SCALE || !value)
+				return -EINVAL;
+
+			cpuratios[i] = -(int) (TIME_RATIO_SCALE / value);
+		} else {
+			err = kstrtoul(p, 10, &value);
+			if (err || value > TIME_RATIO_SCALE || !value)
+				return -EINVAL;
+
+			cpuratios[i] = value;
+		}
+
+		p = end + 1;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+
+		rung->cpu_ratio = cpuratios[i];
+	}
+
+	return count;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(cpu_ratios);
+
+static ssize_t eval_intervals_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+			       struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	int i, size;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	char *p = buf;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+		size = sprintf(p, "%u ", rung->cover_msecs);
+		p += size;
+	}
+
+	*p++ = '\n';
+	*p = '\0';
+
+	return p - buf;
+}
+
+static ssize_t eval_intervals_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+				      struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+				      const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+	int i, err;
+	unsigned long values[SCAN_LADDER_SIZE];
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+	char *p, *end = NULL;
+	ssize_t ret = count;
+
+	p = kzalloc(count + 2, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!p)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	memcpy(p, buf, count);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		if (i != SCAN_LADDER_SIZE - 1) {
+			end = strchr(p, ' ');
+			if (!end) {
+				ret = -EINVAL;
+				goto out;
+			}
+
+			*end = '\0';
+		}
+
+		err = kstrtoul(p, 10, &values[i]);
+		if (err) {
+			ret = -EINVAL;
+			goto out;
+		}
+
+		p = end + 1;
+	}
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = &uksm_scan_ladder[i];
+
+		rung->cover_msecs = values[i];
+	}
+
+out:
+	kfree(p);
+	return ret;
+}
+UKSM_ATTR(eval_intervals);
+
+static ssize_t ema_per_page_time_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				 struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", uksm_ema_page_time);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(ema_per_page_time);
+
+static ssize_t pages_shared_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				 struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", uksm_pages_shared);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(pages_shared);
+
+static ssize_t pages_sharing_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				  struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", uksm_pages_sharing);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(pages_sharing);
+
+static ssize_t pages_unshared_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				   struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", uksm_pages_unshared);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(pages_unshared);
+
+static ssize_t full_scans_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+			       struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%llu\n", fully_scanned_round);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(full_scans);
+
+static ssize_t pages_scanned_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				  struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	unsigned long base = 0;
+	u64 delta, ret;
+
+	if (pages_scanned_stored) {
+		base = pages_scanned_base;
+		ret = pages_scanned_stored;
+		delta = uksm_pages_scanned >> base;
+		if (CAN_OVERFLOW_U64(ret, delta)) {
+			ret >>= 1;
+			delta >>= 1;
+			base++;
+			ret += delta;
+		}
+	} else {
+		ret = uksm_pages_scanned;
+	}
+
+	while (ret > ULONG_MAX) {
+		ret >>= 1;
+		base++;
+	}
+
+	if (base)
+		return sprintf(buf, "%lu * 2^%lu\n", (unsigned long)ret, base);
+	else
+		return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", (unsigned long)ret);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(pages_scanned);
+
+static ssize_t hash_strength_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				  struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%lu\n", hash_strength);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(hash_strength);
+
+static ssize_t sleep_times_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+				  struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%llu\n", uksm_sleep_times);
+}
+UKSM_ATTR_RO(sleep_times);
+
+
+static struct attribute *uksm_attrs[] = {
+	&max_cpu_percentage_attr.attr,
+	&sleep_millisecs_attr.attr,
+	&cpu_governor_attr.attr,
+	&run_attr.attr,
+	&ema_per_page_time_attr.attr,
+	&pages_shared_attr.attr,
+	&pages_sharing_attr.attr,
+	&pages_unshared_attr.attr,
+	&full_scans_attr.attr,
+	&pages_scanned_attr.attr,
+	&hash_strength_attr.attr,
+	&sleep_times_attr.attr,
+	&thrash_threshold_attr.attr,
+	&abundant_threshold_attr.attr,
+	&cpu_ratios_attr.attr,
+	&eval_intervals_attr.attr,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static struct attribute_group uksm_attr_group = {
+	.attrs = uksm_attrs,
+	.name = "uksm",
+};
+#endif /* CONFIG_SYSFS */
+
+static inline void init_scan_ladder(void)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct scan_rung *rung;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < SCAN_LADDER_SIZE; i++) {
+		rung = uksm_scan_ladder + i;
+		slot_tree_init_root(&rung->vma_root);
+	}
+
+	init_performance_values();
+	uksm_calc_scan_pages();
+}
+
+static inline int cal_positive_negative_costs(void)
+{
+	struct page *p1, *p2;
+	unsigned char *addr1, *addr2;
+	unsigned long i, time_start, hash_cost;
+	unsigned long loopnum = 0;
+
+	/*IMPORTANT: volatile is needed to prevent over-optimization by gcc. */
+	volatile u32 hash;
+	volatile int ret;
+
+	p1 = alloc_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!p1)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	p2 = alloc_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!p2)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	addr1 = kmap_atomic(p1);
+	addr2 = kmap_atomic(p2);
+	memset(addr1, prandom_u32(), PAGE_SIZE);
+	memcpy(addr2, addr1, PAGE_SIZE);
+
+	/* make sure that the two pages differ in last byte */
+	addr2[PAGE_SIZE-1] = ~addr2[PAGE_SIZE-1];
+	kunmap_atomic(addr2);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr1);
+
+	time_start = jiffies;
+	while (jiffies - time_start < 100) {
+		for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
+			hash = page_hash(p1, HASH_STRENGTH_FULL, 0);
+		loopnum += 100;
+	}
+	hash_cost = (jiffies - time_start);
+
+	time_start = jiffies;
+	for (i = 0; i < loopnum; i++)
+		ret = pages_identical_with_cost(p1, p2);
+	memcmp_cost = HASH_STRENGTH_FULL * (jiffies - time_start);
+	memcmp_cost /= hash_cost;
+	pr_info("UKSM: relative memcmp_cost = %lu "
+		"hash=%u cmp_ret=%d.\n",
+		memcmp_cost, hash, ret);
+
+	__free_page(p1);
+	__free_page(p2);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int init_zeropage_hash_table(void)
+{
+	struct page *page;
+	char *addr;
+	int i;
+
+	page = alloc_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!page)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+	memset(addr, 0, PAGE_SIZE);
+	kunmap_atomic(addr);
+
+	zero_hash_table = kmalloc_array(HASH_STRENGTH_MAX, sizeof(u32),
+		GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!zero_hash_table)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < HASH_STRENGTH_MAX; i++)
+		zero_hash_table[i] = page_hash(page, i, 0);
+
+	__free_page(page);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static inline int init_random_sampling(void)
+{
+	unsigned long i;
+
+	random_nums = kmalloc(PAGE_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!random_nums)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < HASH_STRENGTH_FULL; i++)
+		random_nums[i] = i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < HASH_STRENGTH_FULL; i++) {
+		unsigned long rand_range, swap_index, tmp;
+
+		rand_range = HASH_STRENGTH_FULL - i;
+		swap_index = i + prandom_u32() % rand_range;
+		tmp = random_nums[i];
+		random_nums[i] =  random_nums[swap_index];
+		random_nums[swap_index] = tmp;
+	}
+
+	rshash_state.state = RSHASH_NEW;
+	rshash_state.below_count = 0;
+	rshash_state.lookup_window_index = 0;
+
+	return cal_positive_negative_costs();
+}
+
+static int __init uksm_slab_init(void)
+{
+	rmap_item_cache = UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(rmap_item, 0);
+	if (!rmap_item_cache)
+		goto out;
+
+	stable_node_cache = UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(stable_node, 0);
+	if (!stable_node_cache)
+		goto out_free1;
+
+	node_vma_cache = UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(node_vma, 0);
+	if (!node_vma_cache)
+		goto out_free2;
+
+	vma_slot_cache = UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(vma_slot, 0);
+	if (!vma_slot_cache)
+		goto out_free3;
+
+	tree_node_cache = UKSM_KMEM_CACHE(tree_node, 0);
+	if (!tree_node_cache)
+		goto out_free4;
+
+	return 0;
+
+out_free4:
+	kmem_cache_destroy(vma_slot_cache);
+out_free3:
+	kmem_cache_destroy(node_vma_cache);
+out_free2:
+	kmem_cache_destroy(stable_node_cache);
+out_free1:
+	kmem_cache_destroy(rmap_item_cache);
+out:
+	return -ENOMEM;
+}
+
+static void __init uksm_slab_free(void)
+{
+	kmem_cache_destroy(stable_node_cache);
+	kmem_cache_destroy(rmap_item_cache);
+	kmem_cache_destroy(node_vma_cache);
+	kmem_cache_destroy(vma_slot_cache);
+	kmem_cache_destroy(tree_node_cache);
+}
+
+/* Common interface to ksm, different to it. */
+int ksm_madvise(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long start,
+		unsigned long end, int advice, unsigned long *vm_flags)
+{
+	int err;
+
+	switch (advice) {
+	case MADV_MERGEABLE:
+		return 0;		/* just ignore the advice */
+
+	case MADV_UNMERGEABLE:
+		if (!(*vm_flags & VM_MERGEABLE) || !uksm_flags_can_scan(*vm_flags))
+			return 0;		/* just ignore the advice */
+
+		if (vma->anon_vma) {
+			err = unmerge_uksm_pages(vma, start, end);
+			if (err)
+				return err;
+		}
+
+		uksm_remove_vma(vma);
+		*vm_flags &= ~VM_MERGEABLE;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* Common interface to ksm, actually the same. */
+struct page *ksm_might_need_to_copy(struct page *page,
+			struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address)
+{
+	struct anon_vma *anon_vma = page_anon_vma(page);
+	struct page *new_page;
+
+	if (PageKsm(page)) {
+		if (page_stable_node(page))
+			return page;	/* no need to copy it */
+	} else if (!anon_vma) {
+		return page;		/* no need to copy it */
+	} else if (anon_vma->root == vma->anon_vma->root &&
+		 page->index == linear_page_index(vma, address)) {
+		return page;		/* still no need to copy it */
+	}
+	if (!PageUptodate(page))
+		return page;		/* let do_swap_page report the error */
+
+	new_page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma, address);
+	if (new_page) {
+		copy_user_highpage(new_page, page, address, vma);
+
+		SetPageDirty(new_page);
+		__SetPageUptodate(new_page);
+		__SetPageLocked(new_page);
+	}
+
+	return new_page;
+}
+
+/* Copied from mm/ksm.c and required from 5.1 */
+bool reuse_ksm_page(struct page *page,
+		    struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+		    unsigned long address)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
+	if (WARN_ON(is_zero_pfn(page_to_pfn(page))) ||
+			WARN_ON(!page_mapped(page)) ||
+			WARN_ON(!PageLocked(page))) {
+		dump_page(page, "reuse_ksm_page");
+		return false;
+	}
+#endif
+
+	if (PageSwapCache(page) || !page_stable_node(page))
+		return false;
+	/* Prohibit parallel get_ksm_page() */
+	if (!page_ref_freeze(page, 1))
+		return false;
+
+	page_move_anon_rmap(page, vma);
+	page->index = linear_page_index(vma, address);
+	page_ref_unfreeze(page, 1);
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+static int __init uksm_init(void)
+{
+	struct task_struct *uksm_thread;
+	int err;
+
+	uksm_sleep_jiffies = msecs_to_jiffies(100);
+	uksm_sleep_saved = uksm_sleep_jiffies;
+
+	slot_tree_init();
+	init_scan_ladder();
+
+
+	err = init_random_sampling();
+	if (err)
+		goto out_free2;
+
+	err = uksm_slab_init();
+	if (err)
+		goto out_free1;
+
+	err = init_zeropage_hash_table();
+	if (err)
+		goto out_free0;
+
+	uksm_thread = kthread_run(uksm_scan_thread, NULL, "uksmd");
+	if (IS_ERR(uksm_thread)) {
+		pr_err("uksm: creating kthread failed\n");
+		err = PTR_ERR(uksm_thread);
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
+	err = sysfs_create_group(mm_kobj, &uksm_attr_group);
+	if (err) {
+		pr_err("uksm: register sysfs failed\n");
+		kthread_stop(uksm_thread);
+		goto out_free;
+	}
+#else
+	uksm_run = UKSM_RUN_MERGE;	/* no way for user to start it */
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_SYSFS */
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE
+	/*
+	 * Choose a high priority since the callback takes uksm_thread_mutex:
+	 * later callbacks could only be taking locks which nest within that.
+	 */
+	hotplug_memory_notifier(uksm_memory_callback, 100);
+#endif
+	return 0;
+
+out_free:
+	kfree(zero_hash_table);
+out_free0:
+	uksm_slab_free();
+out_free1:
+	kfree(random_nums);
+out_free2:
+	kfree(uksm_scan_ladder);
+	return err;
+}
+
+#ifdef MODULE
+subsys_initcall(ksm_init);
+#else
+late_initcall(uksm_init);
+#endif
+
diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
index 698bc0bc18d1..b7590f4944ca 100644
--- a/mm/vmstat.c
+++ b/mm/vmstat.c
@@ -1216,6 +1216,9 @@ const char * const vmstat_text[] = {
 	"nr_shadow_call_stack",
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_UKSM
+	"nr_uksm_zero_pages",
+#endif
 	/* enum writeback_stat_item counters */
 	"nr_dirty_threshold",
 	"nr_dirty_background_threshold",